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Full text of "Excavations of the Godin Project : second progress report"

LIBRARY 

ROYAL ONTARIO MUSEUM 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2012 with funding from 

Royal Ontario Museum 



http://archive.org/details/excavationsofgodOOyoun 



ROYAL ONTARIO MUSEUM 
ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY 
OCCASIONAL PAPER 26 



• 



TUYLER YOUNG, JR 
IUIS D. LEVINE 



Excavations of the 
Godin Project: 
Second Progress Report 



ROYALONTARIO MUSEUM LIBRARIES 



31761 04313 4071 



Occasional Paper 26 

ROYAL ONTARIO MUSEUM 
ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY 



T 
LOUIS 



oSTle™' JR " Excavations of the 

Go din Project: 
Second Progress Report 



With appendices by 

Carol Hamlin and Isobel Heathcote 



ROYAL ONTARIO MUSEUM 

Art and Archaeology Editorial Board 

R. L. Peterson, Chairman 

D. M. Pendergast, Editor 

V. Gervers-Molnar, Associate Editor 

T. Cuyler Young, Jr., Associate Editor 



t. cuyler young, jr., is Curator of the West Asian Department of the Royal 
Ontario Museum, and Director of the Godin Project. 

louis d. levine is Assistant Curator in the West Asian Department of the 
Royal Ontario Museum, and Director of the excavations at Seh Gabi. 



price: $4.50 

Publication date: 15 March 1974 

©The Royal Ontario Museum, 1974 

ISBN 0-88854-019-1 

Printed at Hunter Rose 



To 

Sarra, Katherine, Bridget, 
Samuel and Timothy 

The frequently fatherless five 



Contents 

List of Figures, vii 
List of Plates, ix 
Abbreviations, xi 
Preface, xiii 

Seh Gabi 

Introduction, 1 

The Dalma Period, 2 
Architecture, 2 
Pottery, 2 
Small finds, 4 

The Seh Gabi Period, 4 
Architecture, 4 
Pottery, 6 
Small finds, 8 
Burials, 10 

Mound B Stratigraphy, 1 

The Godin VII and VI Periods, 1 2 
Architecture, 12 
Pottery, 12 
Small finds, 1 3 
Burials, 13 

Mounds A, E and F Stratigraphy, 14 

The Stratigraphy of Seh Gahi, 14 

Godin 

Introduction, 16 

Periods VII to IV, 17 
Period VII, 17 
Period VI, 17 
Period V, 17 
Period IV, 17 

Period III, 1 8 
Stratification, 1 8 
Architecture, 20 
Pottery and small finds, 29 

Period II, 29 
Stratification, 29 
Architecture, 30 
Pottery and small finds, 35 



Conclusions, 37 

Appendix A — The Seh Gabi Chipped Stone, Carol Hamlin, 39 

Appendix B — The Seh Gabi Osteological Material, Isobel Heathcote, 40 

Footnotes, 42 

References, 44 

Catalogue of Published Objects, 45 

Figures, 55 

Plates, 139 



Figures 



1 Central and North Western Iran, 56 

2 Contour map of Seh Gabi and environs, 57 

3 Seh Gabi, South Section, G20 and G21 , 58 

4 Seh Gabi, Mound B, Level Al, architecture, 59 

5 Seh Gabi, Mound B, Level A2, architecture, 60 

6 Seh Gabi, Mound B, Level B, architecture, 61 

7 Seh Gabi, Mound B, Level C, architecture, 62 

8 Seh Gabi, Mound B, Level C, detail of wall N, 63 

9 Seh Gabi, Dalma painted wares, 64 

10 Seh Gabi, Dalma plain and surface manipulated wares, 66 

1 1 Seh Gabi, Seh Gabi painted wares, 68 

12 Seh Gabi, Seh Gabi plain wares, 70 

13 Seh Gabi, Godin VII and VI plain wares, 72 

14 Seh Gabi, Godin VI painted wares, 74 

15 Seh Gabi, small finds, 76 

16 Seh Gabi, burials, 78 

17 Contour map of Godin Tepe, 80 

18 Godin, South Section, Operations AA2, A2, B2 and C2: the 
the Master Section of the Deep Sounding, 81 

1 9 Godin, Period IV pottery and small finds, 84 

20 Godin, Level III:5D structures, 86 

21 Godin, Level IIL4A structures, 87 

22 Godin, Level IIL2C structures, 88 

23 Godin, Level IIL2A structures, 89 

24 Godin, Period III structures, Operations AA9 and AA10, 91 

25 Godin, Period III pottery, 92 

26 Godin, Period III pottery, 94 

27 Godin, Period III pottery, 96 

28 Godin, Period III painted pottery, 98 

29 Godin. Period III painted pottery, 100 



30 Godin, Period III painted pottery, 102 

31 Godin, Period III painted pottery, 104 

32 Godin, Period III painted pottery, 106 

33 Godin, Period III pottery and small finds, 108 

34 Godin, Period III small finds, 1 10 

35 Godin, Period III small finds, 112 

36 Godin, Period III small finds, 114 

37 Godin, Period II structure: the fortified manor house, 116 

38 Godin, East-West Section across Period II structure, 117 

39 Godin, North-South Section across Period II structure, 119 

40 Godin, schematic plans of Stages 1 , 2 and 3 in the history 
of the Period II structure, 120 

41 Godin, schematic plans of Stages 4 and 5 in the history 
of the Period II structure, 121 

42 Godin, detail plan of stairway and ramp area, Period II structure, 122 

43 Godin, Period II structures, Operation AA9, 123 

44 Godin, Period II pottery, 124 

45 Godin, Period II pottery, 126 

46 Godin, Period II pottery, 128 

47 Godin, Period II pottery, 130 

48 Godin, Period II pottery, 132 

49 Godin, Period II pottery, 134 

50 Godin, Period II small finds, 136 

51 Key to symbols, architectural plans, 138 

52 Key to symbols, archaeological sections, 138 



Plates 



I Seh Gabi, Mound B, about one month after the start of 
excavations. Looking west, 141 

II Seh Gabi, Mounds A and E as viewed from Mound B 
at the start of excavations, 142 

III Niche and quern in the main room, Level A, Mound B. 

Looking north, 143 

IV Plastered feature west of wall D in HI 9, Level A 

Mound B, 143 

V Eastern end of the main room, Level A, Mound B, showing 
the plastered walls and the sling pellets on the floor, 144 

VI Sling pellets and red deer antlers in the open area to the 
east of the building, Level A, Mound B, 144 

VII Level C, Mound B, general view. The curtain wall in the 
upper right is wall N, 145 

VIII Close up of the corrugated surface of wall N, 
Mound B, Level C, 145 

IX Mound B, G 20, Burial 5, covered, 146 

X Mound B, G 20, Burial 5, uncovered, 146 

XI The Godin Citadel Mound viewed from the north 
at the close of 1971 field season, 147 

XII Close-up of the torso of Burial 1 , Operation A A9 with 
arrow imbedded in the spine, 148 

XIII Level III:2C, entrance corridor, room 1, with stone threshold 

and mud brick benches, 149 

XIV Level IIL2C, the hearth and bench structure in room 2 

viewed from above, 150 

XV Level III: 2 A, clay grain storage bins in room 24, 151 

XVI Level III:4A, view southeast down "Avenue Road," 152 

XVII Level IIL4A, view north up the alleyways leading to room 5 
and courtyard 10, 153 

XVIII Level III :4A, view north across area 7, rooms 8 and 9, 
alleyway 15, courtyard 10 and the alleyway east of 
room 8, 1 53 

XIX Level III :4A, skeleton of the body crushed on the stone 
pavement in room 23, 154 



XX Level III: 4 A, rectangular bin on the mud brick counter 
in room 29, 155 

XXI Level III: 4 A, general view of room 32 showing the elaborate 
hearth against the north wall, 156 

XXII Level IIL5D, view from the northeast toward 
the doorway of room, 8, 157 

XXIII Period II, east face of tower 1 3 cleared back to the remaining 

fragment of the original fortification wall running between 
towers 13 and 5, 157 

XXIV Period II, view of the fortification wall and towers 4 and 1 7 

from the river bed, 158 

XXV Period II, west face of tower 17 showing curving socle, 159 

XXVI Period II, buttress of west side of tower 17 showing 

reconstruction at a slightly different alignment from 
the original structure, 160 

XXVII Period II, arrow slot in the north fortification wall. NB: two 
lines of replastering indicating the depth to which debris 
had been allowed to accumulate against the wall face, 161 

XXVIII Period II, doorway into room 21 with lintel intact, 162 

XXIX Period II, view of the south bank of magazines (Stage 3 ) 
from the Citadel mound to the south, 1 63 

XXX Period II, view looking northwest across the massive 
southeastern watch towers, rooms 36 and 37, 164 

XXXI Period II, stairway in area 43. All but a fragment of the 
stairway (upper left) has been cleaned down to the 
original first plaster surface, 165 

XXXII Period II, "squatter occupation," flimsy stone foundation 
of wall in area 45, 166 

XXXIII Period II, "squatter occupation," hearth in area 44, 167 



Abbreviations 



AJA 


American Journal of Archaeology. 


Bur. 


Burial. 


D. 


Diameter. 


Disc. 


Discarded. 


Ht. 


Height. 


1LN 


Illustrated London News. 


JNES 


Journal of Near Eastern Studies. 


L. 


Length. 


N.A. 


North America. 


Op. 


Operation. 


SAOC 


Studies in Ancient Oriental Civilizations 


St. 


Stratum. 


w. 


Width. 



NB : Pottery descriptions in the catalogues are given in the following order: 
Ware. Ground colour. Paint colour (when applicable). Finish. 



Preface 



Since the first progress report on the Godin excavations was written we 
have completed two more field seasons at Godin Tepe and a first season 
at the nearby site of Seh Gabi. 1 So it is that we can no longer speak of 
simply the Godin Excavations, but find it necessary to use the term Godin 
Project to describe the current archaeological research of the ROM in Iran. 

As in our earlier report we here keep our text to the absolute minimum 
necessary to describe in skeleton fashion the recent excavations. This gives 
us more space for illustration, which, at this stage in our research, our 
colleagues need more than our still half-baked thoughts. Once again it is 
our hope that comments and criticism on these data by others will be 
forthcoming so that eventually we shall be able to produce a better final 
report on our work. 

Naturally, much more material has been left out of this report than out 
of the last one. We have done a great deal more digging than at the time 
the last report went to press. Thus we have a great deal more data in hand. 
We hope, however, that judicious selection has enabled us to give the 
reader a fairly complete view of at least the basic types and varieties of 
evidence recovered. In the first progress report we were mainly worried 
about sins of commission; here we are more concerned about sins of omis- 
sion. Either way it seems necessary to sin if we are going to publish these 
kinds of reports at all. 

Once again it is a pleasure to thank all who have helped us in our 
work. H. E. M. Pahlbod, Minister of Art and Culture of the Imperial 
Government of Iran; Dr. Firuz Bagherzadeh, Advisor to the Minister; Mr. 
A. Pourmand, General Director of the Archaeological Service of Iran; Mr. 
M. Khorammabadi, Assistant Director and Dr. Tayyib-Naimi, Director of 
Excavations of the Archaeological Service have all taken a kind official 
and personal interest in the Godin Project. 

Financial support for the excavations has come from several sources: 
the Royal Ontario Museum; the Harvie Foundation, Calgary; the Baby- 
lonian Collection of Yale University; the Ford Foundation; and the Can- 
ada Council. 

As the Project has grown in size, so has the staff. The 1969 staff was: 
Louis D. Levinc, Assistant Director; Christopher Hamlin, Carol Hamlin, 
Irene Winter, Curtiss Hoffman, William Sumner and Harvey Weiss, Site 
Supervisors; Claus Breede, Architect; Murray Hadaway, Technician; 
Michael Wills, Assistant Technician; and Mrs. William Sumner, Registrar. 
In 1971 the Seh Gabi excavation staff was: Carol Hamlin, Assistant Di- 
rector; Mary MacDonald, site supervisor; and Dorothy Levine, Registrar. 
The Godin excavation staff was: Christopher Hamlin, Assistant Director: 
Irene Winter, Stuart Brown, Elizabeth Kidd, Vince Piggott, Harvey Weiss 
and Stuart Swinney, site supervisors; and Prudence Young, Registrar. Pro- 
ject staff, shared by both excavations, included Claus Breede, Architect; 
Romavne Dawncy, Artist; and Peter Mitchell, Technician. All of these 
people contributed much. Particular thanks, however, are due to Carol 



and Christopher Hamlin, Irene Winter and Harvey Weiss who have all 
spent three seasons in the field with us and, by virtue of their investment 
of affection and energy in the Project, are practically joint authors of this 
report. 

As in the past, officials of the Canadian Embassy in Tehran have 
assisted the Godin Project in many ways. Not only have our formal con- 
tacts with embassy personnel been useful and pleasant, but also the un- 
official kindnesses shown to members of the Project staff by these public 
servants have done much to make our visits to Iran enjoyable. 

Several people have contributed directly to the preparation of this re- 
port. Mary MacDonald did much of the preliminary analysis of the Dalma 
pottery from Seh Gabi. Claus Breede has prepared the sections, architec- 
tural plans, and much of the pottery and small finds for publication. In the 
latter work he was assisted by Murray Hadaway. Mr. Breede also acted as 
field photographer, and his efforts with the camera have been ably sup- 
ported on the home front by Leighton Warren, Royal Ontario Museum 
photographer. Terry Wang typed the manuscript and, we are sure, would 
be glad if the authors took a refresher course in fourth grade penmanship. 

In 1971 our wives and children were able to come with us to the field. 
Did they see much more of us than in the years when they had to stay at 
home? Whether they noticed us looking or not, we saw a lot more of them, 
and that was good. 

A great many people are involved in the successes of an archaeological 
excavation. Only directors make mistakes. 2 



T. Cuyler Young, Jr. 
Louis D. Levine 



Toronto, April 1973 



SEH GABI 

Introduction 



Seh Gabi is basically a late neolithic site located in the saddle between the 
Kangavar and Assadabad valleys in central western Iran. The site was 
chosen for excavation as part of the Godin Project of the Royal Ontario 
Museum with the specific objective of recovering a large, well documented 
sample of archaeological material whose date was coincident with or earlier 
than the earliest periods of occupation at Godin itself. It was selected after 
a re-survey of the Kangavar valley during the summer of 1967, under- 
taken at the close of the second season of excavations at Godin as a sup- 
plement to the earlier survey of the valley by Young in 1961.* The initial 
season of excavations at Seh Gabi was carried out from 29 May to 30 
August 1971. 

The site of Seh Gabi is some six kilometres northeast of Godin Tepe 
(Fig. 1). Presently, one branch of the Gamas Ab river lies about half a 
kilometre to the east of the site. In years of average precipitation, this 
branch carries water only in the spring. The mounds themselves bear no 
local name, and have been designated Seh Gabi after the closest village, 
which lies 500 metres to the southeast. 

The configuration of Seh Gabi is somewhat different from most sites 
in the Zagros. Rather than a single mound with successive strata of occu- 
pation and decay, the site consists of a number of small mounds spread 
over an area some 550 by 300 metres. Thus, one of the problems faced 
in the interpretation of the site is the determination of the sequence of 
occupation among the various mounds. This is a problem to which we shall 
return later. 

For ease of reference we have labelled the mounds with the letters A-F 
(Fig. 2). The highest of these is Mound B, which rises about 7 metres 
above the present valley floor. (PI. I). It was on this mound that the 
major excavation effort centred in 1971. A, E and F, the eastern group of 
mounds, although given separate letters, may have originally comprised a 
continuous settlement that has since assumed its present configuration 
through either natural or human processes ( PI. II). 4 Small trial soundings 
were conducted in these three mounds. Finally, small soundings were also 
made in Mounds C and D. The former yielded no results which we were 
able to interpret. The latter produced pottery that was not immediately 
identifiable, but which may fall into the late Achaemenid or Parthian 
periods. 

All of the mounds at Seh Gabi showed signs of having been cultivated, 
and, with the exception of A, had been used by the local villagers as 
sources for fresh soil to replenish their fields. The position of the resultant 
cuts is marked on the topographic map of the site. 

Four periods of occupation dating to the late neolithic were found at 
Seh Gabi. The periods are for the present defined on the basis of ceramic 
typology and stratigraphy and little or no cultural baggage is carried by the 
term "period" as it is used here. Of the four, two were defined on Mound 
B, and two on the eastern group of A,E, and F. Since the chronological 

1 



relationships among these are as yet uncertain, the order of our presenta- 
tion of the material can be considered somewhat arbitrary. 



The Dalma Period (Lower Mound B) 

The material deriving from the lower strata on Mound B belongs to the 
Dalma ceramic tradition on the basis of comparisons with material defined 
at the site of Dalma Tepe, Azerbaijan, by the Hasanlu Project of the Uni- 
versity Museum, Philadelphia. 5 The material at Seh Gabi comes from a 
trench four metres wide along the south balk of Op. G 21. r> The length 
of this trench varied, as its open end was defined by one of the peasant 
cuts described above, but it was never more than four metres long. At this 
point of maximum extent, the trench was approximately level with the sur- 
face of the peasant cut. A two metre wide trench continued along this same 
south balk for the rest of G 21 and for about 5 metres into G 22. The 
G 22 portion of this trench was taken down to virgin soil in arbitrary 20 
cm. levels. 

ARCHITECTURE 

No coherent building plan was defined in the levels dating to the Dalma 
period. A number of walls were found, all of them of brick construction. 
In general, it was impossible to find the faces of these walls, although they 
were clearly distinguishable in section. One point worth noting was the 
discovery of what was apparently a very substantial mass of brick just be- 
low the surface slump in the western end of the two metre wide test trench 
in G 21. The wall, if such it was, was at least two metres wide for as far 
as it could be defined. 

POTTERY 

All Dalma period pottery is hand made. The overwhelming majority is 
chaff tempered, and this tempering forms an unbroken continuum from 
finely chopped to rather coarse inclusions. It is impossible to separate the 
pottery into coarse, medium and fine wares in meaningful terms. In addi- 
tion to the chaff tempered wares, a very small percentage of pottery with 
heavy grit temper appears in rather coarse, thick walled vessels, and an 
even smaller percentage of fine grit or sand tempered wares is also present. 
All of the wares are relatively soft, and have an uneven fracture. The fir- 
ing varies from thoroughly oxidized cores to cores which still have grey 
centres. There is a rough correlation between thoroughness of firing and 
thickness of the vessel wall, with the thinner walled vessels more likely to 
be thoroughly oxidized. 

The pottery can be divided into three groups on the basis of surface 
treatment. 

1. Plain wares: The majority of the pottery falls into this class, including 
all of the grit tempered wares, and most of the chaff tempered ones. In 



this category, the surface is a single colour, with any variation the result 
of unevenness of firing or of subsequent use (e.g., smoke blackening of 
part of the vessel or the like.) All of the vessels in this class appear to 
have been slipped, although no microscopic analysis of thin sections has 
been made. The slipping falls into two categories: single slipped and double 
slipped. The latter always has a red or maroon slip applied over a cream 
or white underslip. The single slipped surfaces range in colour from a dark 
purple (almost black at times) through a red to a buff. On at least one 
sherd, the entire range of colour variation is present, perhaps indicating 
that the final colour is not overly significant for purposes of classification. 
Single vessels may vary in terms of treatment. Sometimes both of the sur- 
faces are double slipped, sometimes both are single slipped, and sometimes 
one surface is double slipped while the other is single slipped. In the last 
instance, either the inside or the outside may have the double slip. 

The surface of the vessel may be further treated by smoothing or burn- 
ishing, or it may be left matte. Once again, the treatment of the inside and 
outside surfaces of a single vessel may vary, and most combinations are 
present. 

A representative sample of shapes is presented in Fig. 10. Special note 
should be paid, however, to the occurrence of the funnel (Fig. 12, No. 12) 
in the Dalma period levels, as well as in the latter Seh Gabi period. This 
is one of the distinctive shapes recovered at Dalma Tepe itself. 

2. Impressed, punctate, and applique wares (surface manipulated wares): 
All of these wares are chaff tempered, and seem to occupy the middle of 
the spectrum in terms of tempering coarseness. The surface has been 
treated in a number of ways. Fingertips, fingernails, a pointed object (a 
sharp stick or bone awl), a comb, a blunt ended instrument or broken 
reed, and a small blade have been used to impress or puncture the surface 
of the vessel. At times, this is done in a regular manner, with rows of 
finger nail impressions, or short diagonal or horizontal strokes made with 
a small blade covering the surface; at other times, the manipulation is ran- 
dom. With most of the impressed and punctate wares, the manipulation is 
dense, and covers the entire exterior of the vessel. Applique wares are rare, 
but small elongated knobs running in horizontal bands do occur. 

Manipulation is generally restricted to the outside surface and seems 
to occur only on pots. The inside of the manipulated vessels is slipped, 
either single or double, and the outside of the vessel also appears to have 
been slipped before being manipulated. A trait characteristic of the manipu- 
lated vessels, although not always present, is a pinched rim (Fig. 10, No. 8). 

3. Painted wares: The painted wares are basically a variety of the plain 
wares, one or both surfaces of which have been painted. All of the painted 
wares are chaff tempered, and for the most part belong to the finer end 
of the temper spectrum. The large majority of these wares are painted 
only on the outer surface of the vessel, with painting on the inner surface 
or on both uncommon. The paint is often applied thickly, so that it actu- 
ally stands away from the surface of the vessel, and the colour of the paint 
ranges from deep brown to red. The paint can be applied either to the 



untreated surface of the vessel, or it can be applied over a cream slip. The 
painting covers the entire surface of the vessel, and never seems to be re- 
stricted to one area. Most of the vessels are monochrome, but a small per- 
centage are bichrome. The colours of the bichrome are red and dark purple 
or black on a cream slip. On some of the sherds, the paint is fugitive, but 
this may be the result of post-depositional soil conditions, for it is not 
usually the case. The motifs are all geometric or "abstract". There are as 
yet no naturalistic motifs attested for this assemblage. 

The surface of the vessel that is not painted is slipped. When the paint 
is applied directly to the body fabric, the other surface is single slipped. 
When the paint appears on a cream ground, the other surface is double 
slipped, with the outer slip in the red to brown range. It often appears 
that the slip and the paint are the same colour, and it may well be that 
the same pigment was used for both. The sherds presented in Fig. 9 were 
selected at random, and do not reflect relative frequencies of motifs or the 
ratio of monochrome to bichrome ware. 

SMALL FINDS 

A selection of small finds from all periods at Seh Gabi is presented in 
Fig. 15. Spindle whorls of type 14 and 16 are present in the Dalma levels. 
No. 21, a chlorite ring, was also found in these levels. 7 Various other 
ground stone objects, quern fragments, flat pallets, and perforated stone 
weights are also attested. 



The Seh Gabi Period 

The material which follows the Dalma period on Mound B, and which 
characterizes the occupation of the mound until its abandonment is called 
here the Seh Gabi period. Since it is the first time that a complete assem- 
blage of this type has been published it is difficult to find a more satis- 
factory descriptive term, and so we follow a hoary if somewhat dubious 
Near Eastern archaeological tradition of using a type-site name. 8 

An extensive area of the Seh Gabi period was uncovered on the top 
of Mound B. All of squares G 19 and G 20, most of H 19, and parts of 
G 18, F 17 and G 21 were opened. All of these, with the exception of 
the last two, had material connected with the first level, Level A. In addi- 
tion, a 5 x 5 metre square in the southeast corner of G 20 was taken 
down below Level A. In it, two further architectural levels, B and C. pro- 
duced material dating to the Seh Gabi period. 

ARCHITECTURE 

Level A (Figs. 4 and 5): The architecture of Level A went through two 
phases, labelled Al and A2, with A2 the earlier. There were indications 
in the stratigraphic record that still another level of settlement followed 



Phase A, but no preserved architectural remains were encountered in this 
level. 

The structures of Level A2 were only partially decipherable. A three 
room house in square G 19 was the best preserved. A long central room 
was the focus of the house. It measured approximately 5x2 metres. The 
walls, made of bricks 52 x 17 x 7 cm., were originally at least three metres 
high, and were covered with white plaster. In the north wall was a niche 
and in front of this a semi-circular bin. To the east of the bin on the floor 
was a quern (PI. III). 

To the south of the main room was a small, partially enclosed porch 
area with a scatter of stones on the surface. Along the west wall of this 
was a bin-like structure. It is unlikely that this area was roofed. The third 
part of the structure consisted of a small room added to the west end of 
the principal room described above. Neither the small enclosed area nor 
the small room were white plastered. Instead, a mud plaster was used. 

To the west of the building was an open area, with a few walls and 
scatters of stone that did not form any coherent plan. The stones may have 
originally served as a pen, or as the footing of a wall for a circular struc- 
ture, if wall F and wall D in G 18 are to be linked. The evidence for this 
is as yet inconclusive, as is the stratigraphic position of these stones. There 
is some evidence to suggest that they are to be connected with the second 
phase of Level A. 9 The areas to the south of the porch and to the east of 
the building seem to have been undeveloped in this first phase. 

To the north of the house a number of walls were found, but we were 
unable to make sense of their arrangement. Of note, however, was a curious 
feature found to the west of wall D in square H 19 (PI. IV). It consisted 
of an irregularly plastered area, 70 x 50 cm., in the centre of which was a 
small hole, 9 cm. deep and 1 1 cm. in diameter at the top. Ranged around 
this hole were four plastered feet, which were built as an integral part of 
the feature. The function of this feature, as well as its location, remain in- 
explicable. The area to the north of the building seems to have been an 
open one, a fact hardly consistent with the elaborate plastering that was 
evident on the feature. 

The later phase of Level A, Al, showed few changes from the earlier. 
Most noteworthy was the addition of a room to the east of the main house. 
This used existing walls for two of its own, and faced onto the open area 
to the south. There was no direct access from the house to this new room, 
the only entry being the one from the courtyard. 

Also dating to the later phase of A was a hearth built up against the 
west end of wall J. It consisted of two small thin walls built out from 
either side of the pilaster on the end of this wall. Associated with this 
hearth were large quantities of bone, pottery and stone. 

Two clusters of material dating from this final stage of occupation are 
worth nothing. On the floor in the eastern end of the principal room of the 
main house a scatter of clay sling pellets and a large quantity of wood 
were found (PI. V). A similar scatter of sling pellets together with a frag- 



mentary set of red deer antlers were found in the open area to the east 
of the room that was added in this phase (PL VI). 

Level B (Fig. 6) : The architecture of this level was excavated in only one 
restricted area in the southeast quadrant of Op. G 20. The size of the 
exposure prevented recovery of any meaningful units. The only points 
worth noting are that wall H is a low curtain wall, and that in the corner 
formed by walls F and G a large storage pot was found in situ lying on 
its side. In this pot were found painted Seh Gabi ware sherds (see below), 
including sherd 25, Fig. 11. 

Level C (Figs. 7 and 8): Architecture from Level C was encountered in 
the southeast quadrant of G 20, and in the southwest quadrant of G 21. 
Once again, the small area opened prevented clear understanding of 
the walls found. The surface connected with the walls in G 20 appeared 
to be an exterior one. It was littered with stones, bone and pottery. Half 
of a bovine mandible was found on the surface, as well as a stone mortar 
(PI. VII). Of particular note was wall N (Fig. 8 and PL VIII). The north 
face of this small curtain wall had a corrugated effect, with the raised 
portions covered with a white powdery substance. This may be the result 
of wooden sticks having been set against the face of the wall, and then the 
entire surface covered with something, perhaps a reed mat or a rug, which 
produced the white powder. The decay of the wood would account for the 
absence of the white in the corrugations. At one point on the wall, a rather, 
wide band of white seemed to have a circle that was not covered with the 
powder. The reason for this is unclear. 

POTTERY 

The following remarks on the pottery of the Seh Gabi period are of a 
preliminary nature. No attempt has been made to be definitive, and the 
types described are only those that occur with some frequency. The as- 
semblage contains many new features not present in the earlier Dalma 
period pottery, as well as some that might be considered derivative from 
that earlier assemblage. 

Once again, surface treatment seems to be the most convenient way 
of grouping the wares, although it does not work as well as it did with 
the Dalma material. There is considerable range in fabric in this period, 
but it seems to have some correlation with surface treatment, and there- 
fore will be discussed in terms of varieties so defined. 

1. Plain wares (Fig. 12) : There are a number of types of plain ware pres- 
ent in this assemblage. All but one are hand-made. 

a. Red wares: These are all of medium coarse to heavy coarse fabric, 
with chaff and/or grit inclusions. In general, the heavier the vessel 
body, the more likely that there will be grit inclusions. These are often 
but not exclusively large chips of shale (1-2 cm.) in the very thick 
vessels. The medium coarse vessels are usually chaff tempered. In 
none of these vessels is the fracture even, but as the vessel becomes 



coarser, the fracture becomes more uneven. Most of the vessels ap- 
pear to be slipped, but this slip has not been microscopically exam- 
ined, and it is not clear if it is a self slip. On the finer vessels, how- 
ever, it appears to have been intentionally added. The colour of the 
slip ranges from a red to a very dark grey red. The surface is often 
highly burnished, especially on the finer vessels. The coarse ones are 
sometimes only smoothed. The core of the vessels is tan to orange, 
and usually not thoroughly oxidized. The finer the vessel, the more 
likely that oxidation is complete. This pottery forms the single largest 
class in the assemblage. 

b. Light weight buff ware: This pottery is very heavily chaff tempered 
and extremely light in weight. It is very friable. The edges of the 
sherds can be broken off with the fingers. The core is thoroughly 
oxidized. The fabric is yellow buff in colour, with a matte surface, 
sometimes smoothed. Occasionally, a thin red wash is applied, but 
it is streaky and does not cover the entire surface. At times, this ware 
or one closely resembling it is cream slipped. This cream slipped 
variety seems to be somewhat denser than the unslipped variety. 

c. Fine buff wares: A small group of fine buff wares, identical with the 
painted Seh Gabi wares, is present in this assemblage. For a de- 
scription of the ware, see 2, below. 

d. Dalma plain wares: A small percentage of the plain wares is clearly 
part of the Dalma assemblage. They may however derive from earlier 
levels of the site, and may be in a secondary context not properly 
part of the Seh Gabi period assemblage. Note, however, the continuing 
use of the funnel (Fig. 12, No. 12) mentioned above. 

2. Painted wares (Fig. 11): Aside from a very small percentage of Dalma 
painted wares, many of which are badly worn and may derive from brick- 
work or fill, all of the painted wares form a single, distinctive group. 

The ware is usually wheel made. It is lightly tempered with chaff and 
small grits, with occasional large grits. The clay is dense and fine, the core 
usually fully oxidized and the break straight and clean. The surface is al- 
ways matte, and ranges in colour from a buff or cream to a grayish green. 
There are rare examples in pinkish buff. The vessel thickness is usually 
uniform on a given sherd. The paint is thickly applied, and confined to 
the upper half of the vessel. It is always on the outside surface. The colour 
of the paint in almost all cases is jet black, and it is usually vitrified and 
shiny. There is a tendency for the paint to flake off. Geometric designs are 
the rule, but some naturalistic motifs occur as well. This pottery is often 
overfired. 

3. Impressed wares: As with the painted wares, a small percentage of 
Dalma manipulated wares occurs, but the sherds may, as was the case 
with the Dalma plain and painted wares, be from fill or brickwork. There 
are, however, some fingertip impressed wares present which are part of the 
Seh Gabi period assemblage. These are impressed more sparsely than the 
Dalma fingertip impressed wares, and the impressions arc not as deep. The 
impressions often occur only on the bottom of large, flat-based trays with 



low walls. In general, the fabric of the impressed wares is like that of the 
coarser red slipped wares, but occasionally like that of the denser cream 
slipped buff wares. 

SMALL FINDS 

A selection of small finds from all periods is presented on Fig. 15. 

1. Ground stone: A large number of ground stone tools were found, many 
in debris where they were being reused as part of a general collection of 
stones, some worked and some unworked. The ground stone tools can be 
divided into a number of categories according to form (and function?). 

a. Grinding implements: Querns and quern fragments were frequent in 
the Seh Gabi period levels. As indicated above, an almost complete 
example was found in situ in the main room in Level A. In general, 
the querns are either plano-concave in section or are concave convex. 
From the preserved fragments, most seem to be roughly rectangular, 
but often they are trapezoidal or even triangular in shape. 

The standard grindstone used with these querns was a plano- 
convex one, with the flat surface often trending to a slightly con- 
vexity, probably from use, as it was this surface that was used for 
grinding. The general outline of these grindstones was that of a long 
rectangle with rounded ends. 

A number of fist-size pebbles also appear to have been used for 
grinding. It is not clear on which sort of quern these were used. 

Finally, many stones of assorted shapes have small depressions 
in them. These are often polished to a sheen, and were it not for the 
fact that they occur in great quantities and rarely in situ, they might 
be called door sockets. Often, the two surfaces of the stone contain 
opposing depressions of this sort, but they are not worn through to 
form a hole. The use of these stones is unclear. 

A number of small pallets occur, as do small pestles. In one or 
two cases, traces of red pigment were found on the pestles. The pal- 
lets are flat or have a slight depression, and are often ground very 
smooth (Fig. 15. No. 17). The pestles are usually truncated cones, 
with the bottom of the cone the working surface (Fig. 15, No. 18). 
Small quantities of red ochre were found in the Seh Gabi period 
deposit, perhaps indicating, in conjunction with the traces on the 
pestles, that the pallets and pestles were used for grinding pigments. 

b. Pounding implements: A few deep mortars were found. That they 
were used for pounding rather than grinding is surmise at this point. 
Probably associated with them are some long pestle-like stones, which 
seem to fit in terms of size and function. 

c. Perforated stones: A number of perforated stones were found (Fig. 
15, No. 20). These are usually rather flat, and are in the vicinity of 8 
to 10 cms. in diameter. In one case, the hole is off centre, but this is 
the exception. Use as digging stick weights or net or loom weights may 
be suggested, but no positive evidence is available. 

8 



d. Beads: A few very small beads were found, all with a diameter of 
less than 1 cm. In addition, one incised bead was found (Fig. 15, No. 
24). 

e. Cutting tools: The only ground stone cutting tool found was a small 
chisel-like flat stone (Fig. 15, No. 19). 

2. Chipped stone: An analysis of the chipped stone is presented in Ap- 
pendix A. 

3. Bone: The bone divides into two categories, tools and ornaments. 

a. Tools: The vast majority of bone tools are awls made from the long 
bones of sheep goat. Often the articulating surface is present when 
the entire tool is preserved (Fig. 15, Nos. 2 and 7). Aside from awls, 
some rib bones of large bovines are obviously worked, but the pur- 
pose of the tool is unclear (Fig. 15, No. 9). Finally, one long bone 
was carefully cut and the cut end worked into a neat bevel (Fig. 15, 
No. 1). Again the function is unclear, but this tool may have been 
used in impressing pottery. 

b. Beads: A large number of bone beads have been found, some only 
partially completed. These were cut into narrow sections from the 
long bones of sheep/goat (Fig. 15, No. 5). Some pieces are pre- 
served in which the bead was in the process of manufacture and thus 
still connected to the bone from which it was being cut. Finally, some 
narrower bones were used as beads in longer lengths of up to 5 cms. 

4. Metal: A few pieces of copper/bronze were found, all but one of which 
were in doubtful stratigraphic context and so badly corroded as to be of 
little use in determining function. The exception was some copper/bronze 
found with one burial. Again, preservation was very poor, but the object 
seems to have been a bead. 

5. Shell: A few pieces of mother of pearl were found, but they were with 
one exception unworked. The exception, shown on Fig. 15, No. 22, was 
a mother of pearl "amulet", which unfortunately comes from one of the 
transitional levels between the Dalma and the Seh Gabi period strata (see 
below). Finally, a few shell beads, which still require identification, were 
discovered. 

6. Pottery: 

a. Spindle whorls: The conical spindle whorl shown on Fig. 15, Nos. 12, 
14-16 was the most common type, and occurred in large numbers. 
Most specimens are plain and red slipped. Nos. 12 and 15 are the 
only two decorated examples found. In addition, a number of bi-conical 
objects which have generally been called spindle whorls were also 
found. 

b. Sling pellets: The two large caches of sling pellets mentioned above 
were not the only such objects found. In general, all were similar in 
size and shape to the one shown on Fig. 15, No. 25. 



c. Balls and discs: A number of round clay balls were found. These 
were small (c. 2 cm.) and baked. Their function is unknown. The 
same can also be said of discs made of a broken sherd, rounded and 
perforated. 

d. Miscellaneous: A few miscellaneous clay objects were found in the 
Seh Gabi period levels. These include the small phallic object on Fig. 
15, No. 23, as well as some clay cones and pyramids (Fig. 15, No. 4) 
and some animal figurines such as Fig. 15, No. 11. 

BURIALS 

Eight complete or partially preserved burials associated with the Seh Gabi 
period levels were found, two in G 18, one in H 19 and five in G 20. In 
most cases, the exact stratigraphic position was unclear, but it appears 
that these may have been located under the floors of houses. All of the 
burials were of very young infants or perhaps even foetuses. In the well 
preserved examples, the body was always in a tightly contracted position, 
and in a bowl (Fig. 16, Nos. 2 and 3). The bowl was always of the red 
plain ware, but the shape varied from straight sided to flaring sided. Usu- 
ally, the bowl was right side up, but in one case, the bowl was inverted 
over the skeleton (Pis. IX and X). In two cases, there was evidence that 
the body was either clothed or wrapped in a shroud. In one of the two, 
possible textile fragments were preserved, and are presently undergoing 
analysis. No adult burials were found that can be connected with the Seh 
Gabi period, or for that matter, with any period represented at Seh Gabi. 



Mound B Stratigraphy 



This concluding section on the results of the excavation on Mound B is 
in two parts, one on the internal stratigraphy of the mound, and one on 
the comparative stratigraphy. 

A. Internal stratigraphy: As we stated earlier, there are two periods repre- 
sented on Mound B. The earlier, the Dalma period, runs from virgin soil 
up to at least the base of the peasant cut on the east side of the mound. 
The later, the Seh Gabi period, is present in the first three architectural 
levels on the mound counting from the top down. The issue which is still 
outstanding is the nature of the transition between these two periods. All 
of the evidence for this transition comes from the 4x4 metre trench in 
G 21. Unforunately, we experienced a great deal of difficulty in isolating 
discrete stratigraphic units in this trench, and many of the lots were mixed. 
Much of the deposit consisted of bricky collapse and bricky rubble that 
was differentiated only by slight variations in consistency. Below this, 
there was a thick layer of ashy debris mixed with bricky rubble. This layer 
was subdivided, but it too was hard to remove in discrete units. In addi- 
tion, as was already noted, the walls in this trench were badly preserved, 
and the floors to go with these walls were not readily apparent. Thus, it is 

10 



impossible at the present time to discuss the transition between the two 
periods on stratigraphic grounds. 

There are, nevertheless, some indications of continuity. The highly 
diagnostic funnel, known from Dalma Tepe, occurs in both periods at Sch 
Gabi. In addition, many of the plain wares in the Seh Gabi period may be 
seen as derivative from the Dalma period wares. Finally, the sherds of the 
various Dalma wares found in the Seh Gabi levels may not be intrusive, 
and would indicate the continuance of the earlier ceramic tradition, if in 
somewhat diminished quantitcs. One further possible indication of contin- 
uity exists. We have had an opportunity to examine the field notes from 
Dalma Tepe, and these report the existence of burials of small infants or 
foetuses in bowls immediately under house floors. While we have yet to 
discover such in the Dalma period levels at Seh Gabi, their occurrence in 
the Seh Gabi levels is suggestive of an ongoing burial practice. 

B. Comparative stratigraphy. The only site that has been published in any 
form which has material comparable to the Dalma period at Seh Gabi is 
Dalma Tepe itself. 10 A three-week stay in Philadelphia during the summer 
of 1972 allowed Levine to examine the material from Dalma Tepe in the 
collections of the University Museum, Philadelphia. 11 The correspondence 
between the ceramic assemblages of the two sites can be called nothing 
less than remarkable. Excepting a small percentage of pieces that are par- 
ticular to these two mounds individually, most of the material from Seh 
Gabi could be mixed in with that from Dalma Tepe and it would be im- 
possible to distinguish one from the other on macroscopic grounds. Such 
convergence between sites separated by more than 250 miles of rugged 
mountain terrain is a phenomenon that is well worth further investigation. 

The Seh Gabi period material is still more difficult to deal with. As 
was noted, the published site with which it compares most closely is Tepe 
Giyan. Unfortunately, the Tepe Giyan material is mixed stratigraphically, 
and thus of little use. The only statement that can be made at this point 
is that Seh Gabi period materials occur in both Giyan Vc and Vd. A sur- 
face collection of sherds from Giyan at the Royal Ontario Museum shows 
the same overfired painted wares as those found at Seh Gabi. Any dis- 
cussion of wider connections of these wares with the late Susiana and Susa 
A materials on the one hand, and the late Ubaid materials on the other, 
is beyond the scope of the present report. 

Absolute dating is discussed below. 



11 



The Godin VII and VI Periods 
(Mounds A, E, and F) 



Materials resembling those denned at Godin Tepe in periods VII and VI 
were found in a number of test soundings carried out on Mounds A, E 
and F. The soundings in Mound A were 2x2 metre squares in P 43 and 
K 38; those in Mound F consisted of a 2 x 4 metre square in Y51, along 
the edge of the peasant cut in that mound, and an irregularly shaped sound- 
ing in Y 50, which totalled 12 square metres in area; the trench in Mound 
E was located in square F 46, and was 4x5 metres in area. All were 
supervised in a rather haphazard manner for the most part, and were dug 
to obtain gross information on the ceramic assemblages in these mounds. 

ARCHITECTURE 

No architecture worth noting was found in any of the soundings. A few 
small walls were found in P 43 and Y 51, but the areas opened were too 
small to expect significant architectural results. In Y 50 and F 46, no archi- 
tecture was encountered. While this may be a function of the manner in 
which the areas were dug, it should be pointed out that the balks were 
carefully examined, and no trace of a wall appeared in any of them. It 
is hoped that future excavations on these mounds will yield substantial 
architectural remains. 

POTTERY 

The classification of the pottery from Periods VII and VI at Godin as 
presented by Young is applicable to the pottery found on these mounds 
at Seh Gabi, and need not be repeated here. 12 The larger sample of sherds 
from Seh Gabi, however, does make it possible to add somewhat to 
Young's earlier remarks. 

1. Painted wares: The painted wares are, at least to our eye, markedly dif- 
ferent from Seh Gabi painted wares. The surface is almost always smoothed 
or burnished, and has a slightly soapy feel. The paint varies in colour 
from a tan to an almost black, but it is rarely overfired to the glossy black 
which is the rule on Mound B, and it is usually matte and at times fugitive. 
An impressionistic over-view of the motifs are that they are unlike those 
from Mound B, but a final assessment of this problem will have to await 
the completion of the detailed study now in progress. 

2. Coarse wares: As Young noted, the parallels at other sites to the coarse 
wares are of a very generalized nature. 13 Thanks to the larger amount of 
material now available to us, we can point out some of the index fossils 
of this assemblage, although we are as yet unable to draw good parallels 
with other published sites. 

a. Finger pinched wavy bands: Figure 13, Nos. 1, 2 and 4, are examples 
of this technique. The clay was pinched between the thumb and index 

12 



finger to produce the wavy raised line. The decoration is confined to 
the upper part of the vessel, and occurs in a narrow band. 14 

b. Slash incisions : A thickened rim is often incised with some sort of a 
blade in a number of patterns (Fig. 13, Nos. 3, 5, 7 and 8). Similar 
incisions also cover the entire body of some vessels as in Fig. 13, 
Nos. 10 and 17. This incised ware is unlike that from the Dalma 
period. 

c. Finger impressed lugs: A long narrow lug was applied to the body of 
the vessel, and this lug was then impressed with the fingers, as in Fig. 
13, Nos. 9 and 12 and Fig. 16, Nos. la and 4a. The lug was either 
on the rim of the vessel or at the point of maximum diameter. 

d. Thin based strainers: Fig. 13, No. 15 shows a highly diagnostic form 
from this period. A bowl with sharply insloping sides and a thin base 
had two rows of holes pierced through the walls of the vessel. The 
base is so thin that it seems hardly capable of surviving any kind of 
use. The vessel was clearly made for a highly specialized, as yet 
undetermined function. 

SMALL FINDS 

1. Ground stone: A single mortar or door socket was found in P 43. The 
depression is highly polished, but the rest of the stone is unworked. The 
only other stone object recovered Is a plano-convex disc with a perforation 
through the centre. It measures 4.8 cm. in diameter and is 1.6 cm. high. 

2. Pottery: A wide range of pottery objects were found. 

a. Spindle whorls: The spindle whorls from these mounds differ from 
those found on Mound B. They are generally in the shape of a flat- 
tened cone, with the lower part in-sloping and the depression shallow. 
In one case, there is a row of fingernail impressions around the lower 
part of the outer surface. Fig. 15, No. 13 is a typical example. 

b. Balls, discs, cones: A common find in all of the soundings was a small 
clay disc with concave surfaces (Fig. 15, No. 6). Small clay balls 
and cones, under 3 cm. in size, were also found. 

c. Miscellaneous: A flat clay object shaped like a hook was found but the 
function is unknown (Fig. 15, No. 8). One cylindrical clay bead and 
one animal figurine were also found. Finally a clay sealing of geometric 
design, with the impressions of the string still preserved on the reverse, 
was discovered in F 46 (Fig. 15, No. 3). 

3. Bone: A few assorted bone awls and one bone bead were the only ob- 
jects recovered. 

BURIALS 

Two burials were recovered from the Period VII deposits on Mound E, in 
square F 46. These differ markedly from those found on Mound B. In 
the first place, they appear to have been extramural. No associated archi- 
tecture appeared in either the horizontal or the sections. Both burials were 
of children, but they were older than the infants found on Mound B. The 
burials were in large pots, which were covered with large bowls used as a 

13 



lid (Fig. 16, Nos. 1 and 4). The burials were primary, and the bodies 
were in a tightly flexed position. No grave goods were found with either 
of the two skeletons. 



Mounds A, E and F Stratigraphy 



The nature of the excavation on these mounds makes it difficult to be 
overly precise about the stratigraphy. Thus, the following comments are 
largely provisional in character. 

In both F 46 and Y 50, the lowest strata appear to be equivalent to 
Godin VII. Little fine ware or painted ware appears, and many of the diag- 
nostic forms of the coarse wares are present. The upper strata exhibit a 
larger quantity of the fine wares, both painted and unpainted, and are thus 
apparently comparable to the Godin VI assemblage. 

The problem with this scheme lies not in one-to-one parallels that can 
be drawn between Seh Gabi and Godin, but rather in the nature of the 
transition between Godin VII and VI at Godin itself. As was pointed out 
by Young, Period VI is largely defined by the higher statistical occurrence 
of fine wares, which are present but rare in Godin VII as well. Until we 
have a well excavated assemblage from Seh Gabi, it is impossible to say 
whether we are dealing with the Godin VII range exclusively, or whether 
we have an assemblage comparable in part to Godin VI as well. At pres- 
ent, the latter possibility appears the more likely, but it also seems likely 
that we do not have the later part of the Godin VI time range, as defined 
by Young. 

Aside from the Godin VII and VI parallels, little can be said about 
comparative material. Among the painted wares are those which corre- 
spond to Giyan Vd and Siyalk III sherds, but data from both these sites 
are difficult to use with precision. Of great importance is the work of the 
University of Tehran at the site of Sagsabad. The director, Dr. E. Neghaban, 
kindly allowed me to see some of the material from the 1971 season in 
which there are many parallels to both the painted wares and, more im- 
portantly, to the diagnostic plain wares. The publication of this material is 
eagerly awaited. 



The Stratigraphy of Seh Gabi 



As was noted in the introduction, the relative sequence of the four periods 
represented at Seh Gabi remains a problem. Two pieces of data need to 
be noted. The first is that there are indications of a smooth transition 
from the Dalma period levels to the Seh Gabi period levels. The second 
is that an equally smooth transition seems to characterize the Godin VII 
and VI periods. Thus, the choices left to us are 1 ) putting Godin VII after 

14 



the Seh Gabi period, or 2) putting the Dalma period after Godin VI. The 
possibility that the two developments are contemporary on mounds that 
are separated by only 200 metres seems unlikely, especially as there is 
virtually no mixing of materials from the eastern group of mounds with 
those from Mound B. Of the two choices, the priority of the Dalma and 
Seh Gabi periods over those of Godin VII and VI seems preferable to us 
at this time. The existence of transitional materials between Godin VI 
and Godin V would point to VI being a terminal neolithic assemblage, and 
would argue for its being the latest in the neolithic sequence in the Kanga- 
var valley. In addition at Tepe Giyan, Seh Gabi painted wares appear in 
Vc and Vd, while the Godin VI painted ware is restricted to Vd. Finally, 
Dalma sherds appear in Giyan Vb levels. This would indicate a sequence 
Dalma, Seh Gabi, Godin VI at Giyan. Given the nature of the Giyan 
sample our conclusions are admittedly tentative. 

We would thus suggest that the sequence at Seh Gabi may be as fol- 
lows. Mound B is the earliest settlement, followed by A, E and F. The 
order of these latter mounds is still undetermined. The order of the periods 
at Seh Gabi would then be Dalma as the earliest, followed by Seh Gabi, 
Godin VII and Godin VI. This leaves Godin VII as a new and unexplained 
phenomenon in the neolithic sequence of western Iran, but such an order- 
ing appears to be the most elegant solution to the problem right now. 

A final task remains. Dates have to be assigned to the various periods. 
As yet, none of the radiocarbon samples recovered has been run, so dates 
are based on comparative material from other sites only. The Dalma per- 
iod is probably to be assigned dates of c. 4500-4000 B.C., although the 
lower limit may be too high. Seh Gabi period materials would then roughly 
fit between 4000 and 3700, Godin VII between 3700 and 3400, and Godin 
VI 3400-3100 B.C. These are dates based upon radio-carbon determina- 
tions from other sites, and on a half life of 5730, uncorrected. 15 If the 
correction factor is added, the entire sequence will have to be expanded. 



15 



GODIN TEPE 

Introduction 



The 1969 season of excavations at Godin Tepe lasted from June 20 to 
September 18. One major project was the continued clearance of the area 
on the north side of the Upper Citadel mound which had been selected for 
extended sounding in 1967. Defined by the grid squares CI, C2, Bl, B2, 
Al and A2 and the western half of the two squares AA1 and AA2, this 
operation (hereafter referred to as the Deep Sounding) covers an average 
area of approximately 700 square metres. In 1969 this operation was con- 
fined to levels dating to Period III. We completed the clearance of level 
111:2, begun in 1967 and laid bare Levels 111:3 and 111:4 over the entire 
operation. A second major objective of the 1969 season was continued 
excavation of the large Period II fortified manor house which covers the 
whole of the Upper Citadel mound. By the end of the season a total of 
approximately 4000 square metres had been opened in the search for this 
structure. These excavations were recorded by grid square but actual dig- 
ging followed the plan of the structure as it unfolded, with section balks 
left only where needed and useful. A third objective was the beginning of 
an area clearance on the south edge of the Citadel mound in the grid 
squares AA9 and AA10. It was hoped that this operation might be profit- 
ably expanded in order to expose a large area of the upper Period III 
construction level in this area, but a month of work here suggested that 
further excavation was unwarranted. Finally, four small uncontrolled cuts, 
Operations R, S, T, and U, were made at the eastern top and base of the 
Citadel mound to test the gross sequence and the extent of occupation in 
any given period in this part of the site. 

The 1971 season lasted from May 26 to September 15. Work in the 
Deep Soundings was continued. About half way through the season Ops. 
C2, B2 and A2 had to be stepped north 5 metres, and Ops. AA1 and AA2 
were converted to a large test trench down the east side of the Deep Sound- 
ing. Most of the area lost to excavation in this manner, however, was re- 
covered by our reaching a depth such that significant sections of grid 
squares A01 and B01 became available for excavation. Still, by the end 
of the season the Deep Sounding only covered an area of about 600 square 
metres. In all operations except AOl and BOl we were still in Period III 
deposits when the season closed. In the two northernmost operations we 
had uncovered a single, badly damaged and eroded construction level dat- 
ing to Period IV. Our second effort in 1971 was directed to what we hoped 
would be the completion of the Period II fortified manor house. This 
proved impossible, however, though matters were brought to the point 
where we can be reasonably sure of recovering all that remains of this im- 
portant structure by the end of the 1973 season. Once again small uncon- 
trolled trenches were cut at various points to test gross sequences: Op. W 
and X at the upper western edge of the Citadel mound, and Op. YE, and 
YW and Z at the base of the west end of the Citadel mound in an area 
much cut away by the locals for earth with which to make bricks (PI. XI). 

16 



Periods VII to IV 



PERIOD VII 

No further material which can with certainty be assigned to Period VII has 
been recovered in excavations at Godin Tepe. None of the several uncon- 
trolled operations which have gone to virgin soil has yielded Period VII 
material, and, though the record is as yet incomplete, it begins to look as 
though the Period VII mound was a small one located only in the general 
area of Op. B cut in the 1965 season. A few sherds of Period VII date 
were recovered in the lowest levels of Op. M l cut in the south flat in 1967, 
but solid evidence for a Period VII occupation in that area is something 
we shall search for in 1973. If there does prove to be such an occupation, 
then we may have evidence at Godin for two separate small mounds in 
Period VII. 

PERIOD VI 

The only Period VI materials recovered since our last report are from the 
uncontrolled Op. YE. Virgin soil was not reached. Bricky collapse strata 
containing Period VI plain and painted wares were found below a shallow 
deposit of Period V date. The latter appears to rest conformably on the 
former. Further excavations will be undertaken in this area in 1973. 

period v 

Period V materials have been recovered in Ops. YE, YW and Z. In Op. 
YE they probably represent the remains of a single building level — all 
that is left of a once deeper deposit much destroyed by the modern brick 
makers. In Ops. T and U, Period V deposits were found underlying Period 
IV materials and resting on virgin soil. Such evidence as we now have 
from the several cuttings at the base of the Citadel mound strongly sug- 
gests that it was in Period V that the mound grew in size to include the 
whole of the area covered by the Citadel mound, whereas the Period VI 
site (or sites) had been very much smaller. 

PERIOD IV 

Period IV materials were recovered from Ops. T and U and, in the Deep 
Sounding, from Ops. AOl and BOl. In the latter area there is further evi- 
dence to suggest that the Period III deposit rests unconformably on the 
eroded upper surface of Period IV. 10 Here the IV deposit was thin (maxi- 
mum depth 1.50 metres). In BOl a large "ceremonial" hearth which had 
been rebuilt and replastered on several occasions was found, unfortunately 
with its northern edge badly damaged by the erosion which has cut away 
the north face of the mound. In AOl a scries of small, flimsy walls en- 
closing hearths, all rather suggestive of some kind of industrial area, were 
found. Detailed presentation of these structures must await the clearance 
of area immediately to the south (Ops. Al and Bl). In Ops. T and U, 
Period IV material rested apparently unconformably on Period V deposits. 

17 



No Period IV structures were found in either cut, the deposit, as in Ops. F 
and P, being a series of trash tip lines sloping downwards from the Citadel 
mound. It would seem that the Period IV mound was slightly smaller than 
the mound of Period V. 

No pottery was discovered in these operations which differs in any 
notable way from the pottery of Period IV described in our earlier report. 

Further examples are illustrated (Fig. 19), along with a few Period IV 
small finds. 



Period III 



STRATIFICATION 

Period III materials have been found immediately below the surface of the 
Citadel mound in Ops. S, R, W and X. In Ops. AA9 and AA10, Period 
III structures were overlain by a very thin deposit derived from flimsy 
structures dating to Period II. The great bulk of Period III material, of 
course, has been recovered from the Deep Sounding, strata 5 A to 18A (Fig. 
18). 

In the Deep Sounding we had completed the clearance of Level 111:1 
and part of Level IIL2A by the time of our last progress report. 17 Since 
then we have increased the depth of the sounding by between 4 and 5 
metres to a total average depth of some 7 metres. Level 111:2 proved to 
have undergone three phases of construction and reconstruction, labeled 
Levels III: 2 A, 2B and 2C in descending order. Immediately below these 
111:2 structures lay the very scrappy and poorly defined remains of build- 
ings which had covered only parts of the area under excavation. Little in 
the way of an articulate plan could be drawn of this building level, but 
enough was recovered to indicate that we were certainly not dealing either 
with a still earlier phase of Level 111:2 or with a final phase of Level 111:4. 
Thus these structures were awarded a level number in their own right, 
Level 111:3. In parts of the area under excavation Level 111:3 rested im- 
mediately on the upper surface of deposits related to Level 111:4; in others 
(see esp. the Master Section. Fig. 18, for Op. A2 and strata 12D to 12L, 
14C and 14J) there is clear evidence for abandonment between Levels 
111:4 and 111:3 during which time large quantities of trash and wash de- 
rived from elsewhere on the mound accumulated in the area under exca- 
vation. 

Thus the basic stratigraphic pattern from the end of Level 111:4 up- 
ward is similar to and a continuation of that which marked the relationship 
between Levels IIL2A and 111:1 described in our last report. 18 After the 
abandonment of Level 111:4 only a part of the area under excavation was 
occupied, and even that occupation appears to have been unsubstantial. 
The mound, however, was by no means abandoned; Period III occupation 
continued in areas outside of the limits of the Deep Sounding. It is that 
occupation, combined with such activity as was taking place within the 
area excavated (toward the west end of the sounding), which produced 



18 






the collapse, wash and trash represented by strata 12D to 12L, 14C and 
14J in Op. A2. The area under excavation was then completely reoccupied 
and the structures of Level III:2C were built (Fig. 22). The structures of 
this level at the east end of the sounding in Ops. Al, A2, AA1 and AA2 
went through an intermediate phase of reconstruction and reorganization 
labeled Level III:2B (plan not given). Then a major reconstruction took 
place, labelled Level III:2A (Fig. 23). As described in our earlier report, 
eventually the structures of Level 111:2 were abandoned completely, the 
Period III occupation in the area of the Deep Sounding was again inter- 
rupted, deposits of wash and trash collected over and around the wall stubs 
of Level III: 2 A, and only later the structures of Level 111:1 were built. 
Properly speaking, therefore, from the end of Level 111:4 upwards we 
really have recovered only a part of the Period III sequence at Godin Tepe. 
At a minimum we are missing a major construction level between each of 
the principal architectural complexes which we have been able to describe. 
At least one occupation is entirely missing between Level 111:1 and 111:2, 
and part of an occupation is missing between Levels 111:2 and 111:3 and 
between Levels 111:3 and 111:4. These very fundamental stratigraphic con- 
siderations must be kept in mind when dealing with the materials recovered 
in terms of either relative or absolute chronology. 

From Level 111:4 downward the stratigraphic situation changed mark- 
edly. There were no longer any major interruptions in the sequence of 
constructions and reconstructions. For ease of presentation we have con- 
tinued the practice of giving different building level designations to the 
architectural remains when structural configurations are so changed as not 
to be recognizably related to earlier configurations. In fact, however, such 
distinctions are as arbitrary and heuristic as the division into periods of 
an historical continuum such as the Rennaisance and the High Middle 
Ages, or the Ubaid and the Early Uruk periods in Mesopotamia. The fact 
is that Level 111:4 A is really just a very evolved configuration of the struc- 
tures first built in Level IIL5E. At no point in the sequence was the evo- 
lutionary development of the architecture broken by any significant aban- 
donment of the area under excavation. We found this situation difficult to 
deal with during excavation, and it is no easier to describe after the fact. 

What has happened is that we have opened a large enough area, on a 
part of the mound which was not abandoned for a long enough period of 
time, that what we have recovered is the stratigraphic record of literally 
scores of minor rcbuildings and structural adjustments such as are typical 
of any continuously occupied modern Near Eastern village. Over a long 
period of time these multiple individual rcbuildings, combined with the 
natural trash resulting from people living in these structures, result in the 
accumulation of a deep archaeological deposit. At first we called this 
phenomenon "spiral stratigraphy," 10 for that is exactly the impression you 
get in tracing any given stratum around the Deep Sounding. For example, 
we could take the floor, and trash deposit on that floor, which in Op. CI 
defined Level IIL5B, and trace it south into Op. C2 and then cast into 
Op. B2. The associated structure in Op. B2 was then labelled Level 
III:5B. A similar stratum associated with the structures of Level III : 5B in 

19 



Op. B2 was then traced farther east in Op. A2, where it was suddenly found 
to be associated with structures labeled III: 5 A, since they were the walls 
immediately underlying Level III:4B in that operation. If we continued to 
trace that same stratum, turning north and then heading back west to 
our starting point in Op. CI, we were likely to find that by the time we 
arrived back in Op. CI, we were following the stratum that had originally 
defined the floor of the structures labelled III:4B in that operation, and 
were by now perhaps as much as a metre or more higher up the section 
than where we started. We cannot think of a better illustration of the well 
known truth that all periodization of the historical record is only a useful 
fiction of analysis. 

"Spiral stratigraphy", however, does not really quite describe the 
phenomenon. The growth and development of a Near Eastern site cannot 
even be seen as that regular. Rather, what is happening can only be de- 
scribed as a quite irrergular, unpatterned growth of deposition. Recon- 
structions appear perhaps first in the centre of the area under excavation, 
then in the east, then in the west. Or perhaps twice to the west, then in 
the east, then in the centre. There simply is no regular, predictable se- 
quence of events. One must imagine a child who, while building a large 
square tower out of small, irregular shaped blocks, never manages during 
the actual construction process to get the top of his tower all on one level. 

Several important implications follow from a recognition of "spiral 
stratigraphy" (we have yet to come up with a better catch-word phase 
for the phenomenon). 1) You will only find it if you dig a big enough 
horizontal area of the site. Obviously, if we had opened a much larger area 
of Levels 111:1 to 111:3 we might very well have discovered that these 
"levels" have the same kind of stratigraphic relationship one to another as 
do Levels 111:5 and 111:4. The corollary of this observation is also true: if 
you put a small enough trench in a mound you will get a distinctly dif- 
ferent impression of the stratigraphic relationships of your materials. 2) 
The observations which led us to distinguish the reconstructions of Levels 
IIL2C, 2B and 2 A were simply observations of "spiral stratigraphy" on a 
miniature scale. 3) Real, chronologically significant breaks in the occupa- 
tional sequence of a site are often very hard to determine. 4) It will be a 
difficult thing to clear a single building level over a very wide area and be 
assured that materials recovered at one extreme of that clearance are actu- 
ally contemporary with materials recovered from the other extreme of the 
area excavated. 5) It will be some time before we develop recording and 
descriptive techniques which will allow us to deal effectively with the 
chronological and cultural implications of materials recovered from such 
a complicated stratigraphic context. Near Eastern archaeologists are a long 
way from understanding stratigraphy in anything but frighteningly simplis- 
tic terms. 

ARCHITECTURE 

No articulated structural remains have been recovered from Ops. S, R, W 
and X. In Ops. AA9 and AA10 we found the stone foundations of a 
structure consisting of at least three rooms and what may have been a 

20 



paved courtyard (Fig. 24). Part of the purpose of a trench in this location 
was to determine whether or not there was any fortification wall of Period 
III at the edge of the Citadel mound. At first it seemed that the structure 
recovered might be some kind of casemate wall, since it is aligned with 
the edge of the Citadel mound, but the structure does not appear to con- 
tinue any farther east and west than shown in Fig. 24. A deep trench was 
extended south over and down the edge of the Citadel mound from Op. 
AA10, and, though perhaps about half of the total depth of the Period 
III deposit was sounded, no evidence of any fortification wall was dis- 
covered. 

An unburied body was found in Op. AA9 in the Period III deposit. 
Burial 1 of Op. AA9 was in st. 4 on a surface associated with the Period 
III structures. The body lay in the northeast corner of the operation, head 
to the south and torso and legs lying almost parallel with the east balk 
section, and the body was close enough to the balk that had it been a 
burial such evidence would have been present in the section. The body 
was supine, with the legs drawn up so that the knees stuck straight up. The 
knees themselves had been chopped off in ancient times during the laying 
of the floor of the Period II structure of strata 2 and 3 (Fig. 43). Both 
arms were across the chest, with the left hand at the throat and the right 
hand at the left elbow. There were no objects associated with the body 
ether than a bronze arrow head which was found still imbedded in the 6th, 
7th and 8th thoracic vertebrae. The arrow had entered the body on a 
descending arc, nipped the 6th thoracic vertebrae, cut through the 7th, 
severed the spinal chord between the 7th and 8th and cut the ventral edge 
of the 8th thoracic vertebra (Fig. 34, No. 1; PL XII). There was no other 
evidence of violence in the area. How the body came to this location, how 
it was buried in the debris of wall collapse and wash derived from Period 
III structures and what larger events might be associated with the shooting 
remain complete mysteries. One would suppose that the shooting and 
death are in some way related to the final abandonment of the Period III 
occupation, but nowhere else is there evidence that the abandonment in- 
volved violence. 

It is not yet possible to present in detail all of the several building 
levels recovered from the Deep Sounding. Thus the discussion here is con- 
fined to one or two characteristic phases from each of the main building 
levels defined, excepting Level 111:3, which is not discussed at all. 

Level 111:2: The earliest phase, Level IIL2C reveals the remains of per- 
haps four separate structures (Fig. 22). Those in the west half of the area 
excavated are discussed below under Level III :2A. Here we are interested 
only in the rather large structure falling almost entirely in Ops. Al, A2, 
AA1 and AA2. This building, the final phase of which was in part un- 
covered in 1967, is described in our earlier report. In this its earliest con- 
figuration we see that it was almost a monumental structure. Area 6 is out- 
side the building; perhaps the end of a street. To the east is the grand 
entrance to the building. After crossing a stone paved threshold, one 
entered room 1 , a hall or corridor with benches against the north and 

21 



south walls. These well made, mud-plastered benches had plastered arm 
rests at either end, giving rather the effect of large sofas or chesterfields 
(PL XIII). The corridor led on to the east out of the area excavated. One 
could, however, also exit to the north, stepping down into room 2. This 
was a large, apparently roofed room, with a rather curious central hearth 
(PI. XIV). The hearth itself consisted of a square pottery tray with high 
sides, resting on the ground. Around at least three, and we may assume 
four, sides of this tray ran a low plastered mud brick bench on which 
people could sit to warm themselves at the fire. One is tempted to suggest 
that this complex of hearth and bench functioned much like a modern 
Iranian kursi. The ceramic hearth performed the function of the modern 
metal manqal; a large quilt would be held up well above the hearth by 
some kind of a wooden or metal frame, and the people would sit around 
the fire on the bench with the quilt snug up under the arm pits. Today 
with such a rig one can keep a dozen or more people quite warm all day 
on a handful of charcoal. 

Rooms 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, 9 and 10 remained unaltered through all phases 
of Level 111:2 and have already been described. 20 Rooms 11 and 12, how- 
ever, were only excavated in 1969. These two rooms may be part of a 
separate structure. One could, of course, argue the same way in regard to 
rooms 8 and 9. Perhaps it is most logical to see the building with the 
grand entrance and the large room with the hearth as a single structure 
belonging to a person of unusual means or rank, and rooms 1 1 and 12 and 
8 and 9 as very small and by comparison very modest separate houses. 
It is regrettable that the north end of room 12 in Level III:2C was de- 
stroyed by erosion and later constructions. Area 13 is almost certainly 
outside any structure. 

In Level III:2B the "monumental" house underwent some alterations. 
By Level III:2A it was no longer so impressive and the whole room and 
entrance arrangement on the east had been markedly changed (Fig. 23). 
The west side of the building remained unaltered in Level IIL2B, but by 
Level III:2A it had undergone some reconstruction. Room 12 (in 111:2 A 
room 15) was much smaller, and no longer had a stone pavement, and 
the doorway to the west was blocked. A large grain storage bin had been 
added in the northeast corner of room 11 (in IIL2A room 16). 

Turning to the western half of the Deep Sounding and Ops. Bl, B2, 
B3, CI, C2 and C3 we find that the structural remains are best discussed 
in terms of Level III :2A (Fig. 23). There were only two constructional 
phases in this area; nothing was found which could be specifiically corre- 
lated with the Level IIL2B changes in the east half of the sounding. Varia- 
tions between the two III:2C and IIL2A phases involve only relatively 
minor alterations in wall configurations, some widening and strengthening 
of walls, and changes in some of the minor features on floors. 

Here in Level IIL2A we have the remains of at least three and per- 
haps four houses. Rooms 18 and 19 probably define one house. The en- 
trance to the house was from the east from the unexcavated area of square 
A3. Just to the right of the door before one entered were two clay grain 
storage bins. A bench was in the northeast corner of room 19. A doorway 

22 



to the north gave access to room 18, which was large and may possibly 
have had a single wooden column standing on a flat stone base to support 
the roof. A large patch of stone pavement ran up against the west wall. 
Low benches fronted parts of the north and east walls, which had been 
considerably rebuilt and strengthened since Level III:2C. Built into the 
wall in the northwest corner of the room was a square mud plastered, 
storage bin. 

Rooms 20 and 21 may have been parts of a second house, most of 
which lay to the south beyond the area excavated. Two typical Period III 
clay grain storage bins were found in room 21 against the north wall. 
Rooms 22 and 24, and perhaps rooms 23 and 25 as well, formed another 
house. Certainly rooms 22 and 24 describe a constructional unit and, more 
important, are most interesting in terms of the several features found in 
them. Two distinct hearth areas were found in room 22. The doorway 
between rooms 22 and 24, probably at one time wider than it appears in 
Level III: 2 A, was paved with stones. Beginning in the doorway and run- 
ning north along the west face of the* long east wall was a rather irregularly 
shaped low bench in which, in room 24, was a raised ceramic hearth. An- 
other large hearth area lay at the north end of the bench. The whole of 
this area was much burned and covered with an ash deposit (note the 
large ash deposit labelled stratum 8M in the Master Section, Fig. 18). 

Two large, well preserved clay grain storage bins were set against the 
north wall of room 24 (PL XV). Just to the west of these bins, cut back 
in part into the north wall, was another raised hearth. In front of the bins, 
sunk in the floor of the room, was another hearth, and just to the south- 
east of it was a large but shallow hole in the floor. Again the area was 
heavily burned and covered with much ash. Immediately west of the cir- 
cular floor hearth was a pair of walls that looked very much as though 
they define some kind of elaborate entrance to a room to the east beyond 
the excavated area. Room 23, which could have been part of this com- 
plex entered from the east, also contained a bench and a hearth. Room 25 
may have been a part of the small building, again entered from the east. 
It is probably not associated with room 24 since the stone foundations un- 
covered in Level IIL2C showed that it did not share a party wall with 
room 24. A hearth lay in the southeast corner of room 25, there was a 
circular hearth sunk in the floor in the centre of the room, with a pot set 
in the floor nearby and a patch of stone pavement against the south wall. 

The hearths in rooms 22, 23 and 25 can easily be explained in terms 
of the winter climate of central western Iran. Another explanation must be 
sought, however, for the complex of hearths in room 24. One suspects we 
are here dealing with some kind of industrial activity, most probably bread 
making on a fairly grand scale, since we have two large grain storage bins 
associated with no less than four separate hearths. Perhaps this is some 
kind of a baker's shop serving several households or even a sizable seg- 
ment of the whole village. 

Room 29, which was floored with a stone pavement over a large area, 
had a hearth against the south wall and large pot sunk in the floor, and 
was almost certainly part of still another complex of rooms to the west 
and north. 

23 



Level 111:4: Only the uppermost configuration of this level is discussed 
here, Level III:4A (Fig. 21). The dominant feature in the eastern part 
of the Deep Sounding in this level is the street, "Avenue Road" or area 1, 
running at an angle across the southeast corner of the area excavated (PI. 
XVI). This street is a major connecting link between the architecture of 
Level 111:4 and that of the several stages of Level 111:5, for it remained in 
use throughout all of those building phases. It was the area which filled 
with wash and trash during the occupation of Level 111:3 and only ceased 
to function as a street in Level 111:2, though even then the memory of it 
may have lingered in the alignment of the corridor entrance of the "monu- 
mental" structure of that level. 

Four passages go north off "Avenue Road". Starting at the east side 
of the Deep Sounding, two thresholds in stone lead from a jog or widening 
in the street into rooms 2 and 3. The latter room, with parts of its floor 
paved in stone and a rather odd niche in its north wall, must be part of a 
larger structure to the east which remains unexcavated. Room 2, with two 
benches and patches of stone paved floor, is hard to see as an entity unto 
itself, and may have functioned as some kind of a small guard room 
oriented to the entrance into the house of which room 3 is a part. Of 
room 4 we know nothing sensible as yet. 

Area 6 is another street, a small alleyway paved in stone sloping up 
from "Avenue Road" to a flight of three stone steps leading into room 5, 
which could have been a one room house (PI. XVII). A clay grain stor- 
age bin stands against the west wall. A low bench in the northwest corner, 
of the room abuts a raised rectangular storage bin also against the west 
wall. At the east end of the bench, backed against a small wall stub, is a 
hearth. Another bench which ran along the east wall has been badly dam- 
aged by a large pit cut from later levels. 

Immediately to the west of room 5 and area 6 is perhaps one of the 
more interesting structural complexes yet recovered from Period III (PI. 
XVIII). Area 7 is a paved terrace standing above the level of "Avenue 
Road", defined on its south side by a stone retaining wall and on its west 
side by a stone and mud brick retaining wall. There was no evidence for 
any free-standing wall along the south or west sides of area 7. Area 15 is 
another alleyway, again as in the case of area 6 paved with stone and 
leading up to the north to a flight of three steps up into area 14. This latter 
area probably should also be seen as a street, or rather as a widening at 
the end of the area 1 5 alleyway, off of which are two doorways, one lead- 
ing to area 24, the other to area 10. There is some evidence to suggest that 
area 10 was an open courtyard. It is also paved with flat stone over much 
of its surface. In the northwest corner of the courtyard is a very small 
room, the doorway of which is partially blocked by a large pot set in the 
surface. Through the room runs a drain, the terminus of which lies some- 
where to the north and is eroded away. One is tempted, of course, to see 
this room as an outhouse or privay; it is in the same location in the court- 
yard as are privies in Near Eastern village houses today. 

There are two ways out of courtyard 10 to the south. One, at the east 
side of the area, leads down five stone steps to an alleyway which even- 

24 



tually reaches the stone paved terrace, area 7 described above. The other 
leads across a fairly level threshold into room 9, which is elaborately paved 
with stone. From room 9 a sloping ramp-like pavement leads farther south 
into room 8. Two exits lead out of room 8; one west onto the stairs in 
area 15, the other east into the alleyway leading to area 7. In a large niche 
in the north wall of room 8 is a three-level, waist-high platform, lowest 
at the west end. 

All of the walls of room 8 have been burned brick-red by a fierce con- 
flagration which had destroyed the room. The red debris of this fire covered 
the whole of the northwest quadrant of Op. A2, and at first led us to ex- 
pect a major burned level over a much wider area (in places the burned 
deposit was over 1.50 metres deep). Not so. The burning was confined al- 
most entirely to room 8 and was associated with some special activity con- 
ducted there, or with some special material stored there. The fire was cer- 
tainly a disaster, but was contained and localized. Eventually a detailed 
analysis of the small finds of this complex of rooms may give some ex- 
planation of the special use to which it was put. As a start for speculation, 
one is tempted to see it as some kind of shop. 

It is not hard to visualize a fat merchant sitting on the platform of 
area 7 under a cloth or canvas shade selling his wares to the public passing 
along "Avenue Road". His stock of goods is perhaps stored in room 8, or 
his assistant is there manufacturing whatever is being sold out front. Be- 
hind is an open courtyard where goods could be received and, in clement 
weather, also stored. Room 13 might be nothing more than a corridor of 
some kind leading to a complex of rooms now lost down the north face 
of the Citadel mound which perhaps was our merchant's private living 
quarters. 

The separate entrance from the alleyway of area 14 into room 24 sug- 
gests that rooms 24, 25 and 26 form a distinct establishment. Room 24 
has a complex hearth in the northwest corner. It leads to room 26, which 
is here much smaller than it was in Level III:4B. Room 26 has a bench 
against the west wall, a bench projecting into the room from the east wall, 
and north of the latter feature a very complex series of hearths, some 
raised and some at floor level. Room 25 was difficult to define thanks to 
later erosion, and we have no idea whether it was really part of the same 
building as rooms 24 and 26. 

Areas 17 and 19 do not seem to make a great deal of sense. Room 
17 might be a very small shop or store room. Area 18 cannot be anything 
other than a wide gap between two walls constructed at different times. 

Area 19 was an afterthought carved out of a once larger area 14 by 
the construction of the little curtain wall which defines it on the north side. 

Room 22 and 23 define another house. Entrance was gained to the 
complex from room (area?) 20 to the south. Room 21 could belong to 
this complex or to another house to the south beyond the area excavated. 
Room 22 had patches of stone pavement on the floor, two holes in the 
floor perhaps for holding pots, and a hearth against the south wall. At 
some point in the life of the structure the doorway between rooms 22 and 
23 was blocked, making access to the latter possible only from the roof 
or the second floor. 

25 



The floor of room 23 was carefully paved with stone, and a line of 
stones against the west wall may have originally been a foundation for a 
mud plaster bench which was destroyed before excavation. On the pave- 
ment of this room, crushed flat by the heavy rubble debris which filled the 
room to a height of almost 2 metres, was the skeleton of a man perfectly 
preserved except that the whole of his right leg and half of his pelvis were 
missing. (PL XIX). No fragments of the missing bones were found in the 
debris. A crushed body, the rubble nature of the debris, the heights to 
which the walls in this area were preserved and the quantities of complete 
but smashed pottery vessels found all suggest that some kind of violent 
destruction was involved in the final abandonment of Level III:4A. It 
could have been another earthquake similar to the one postulated as having 
destroyed Level III: 2 A, 21 and such an explanation might also provide us 
with a cause for the violent fire in, and the abandonment of, room 8. 

Rooms 29 and 30 form another house, with the entrance again to the 
south. Area 31 may be nothing more than a space between walls or it may 
be a small room of another structure. A large pit (Master Section, Fig. 18, 
Ops. C2 and B2, st. 11H) sunk from later levels destroyed much in this 
area. A rather elaborate two-stepped mud brick bench or platform ran 
along part of the east wall of room 30. At the south end of the platform 
was a raised mud brick counter-like structure in which were two rather 
deep holes of uncertain function. A good deal of the east wall of the room 
had been either intentionally cut or accidentally worn away, creating a 
curved niche at the back of the platform. To the north, just in front of 
the doorway into room 29, a small curtain wall projected westward into 
the room and defined the south side of a hearth. At some point while this 
platform and hearth were still in use the doorway between rooms 30 and 
29 was blocked with mud bricks. In room 29 two hearths were built along 
the east wall against the blocking. An irregular low bench ran along the 
south wall, against which was another hearth. Along the west wall was a 
raised platform or counter at the south end of which was a large rectangu- 
lar bin (PL XX). Once again we seem to have evidence for activites more 
elaborate and complex than what we might expect to be associated with 
a simple domestic structure. 

Room 32 was part of a structure most of which lay to the south and 
west beyond the excavated area. No direct communication existed at this 
level between rooms 30, 32 and 33. Against the north wall of room 32 
was a very elaborate hearth and low platform which had undergone several 
rebuildings and alterations in shape during the lifetime of Level 111:4 (PL 
XXI). Patches of stone pavement were found in the northeast corner of 
the room. Room 33 was part of a complex the remainder of which lay to 
the west outside our sounding. Once again the number of hearths suggest 
some unusual function. There was an elaborate hearth in the northeast 
corner, a large open hearth area against the east wall, a small hearth in 
the southeast corner which had eaten deeply into the walling, a large 
hearth area against the south wall which had also done much damage to 
the wall, and a still larger hearth area against the south wall along the balk. 
A small patch of stone pavement lay just east of that hearth. Large 

26 



amounts of ash and burned earth were in the deposit filling the room and 
resting on the floors. 

Any detailed discussion now of rooms 27, 28 and 34 would be pre- 
mature. Suffice it to say that the structural and stratigraphic history of this 
area is very complex. The unusually thick walls are the results of: 1) an 
unwillingness on the part of the builders to ever use a party wall, and 2) 
several rebuildings, each of which resulted in a widening and strengthen- 
ing of the original structure. One might even wonder whether successive 
builders were specifically planning for protection against earthquakes. The 
wall between rooms 28 and 34 is particularly interesting in this regard. 
There are actually three separate walls involved. All had stone founda- 
tions. The western and centre walls were built first and were at least in 
part contemporary. There was a gap between them which was tightly 
packed with small river cobbles. The walls and packing were preserved to 
a height of just under 2 metres. An explanation for the stones is that they 
provided a good drainage channel for water running off the roofs of the 
two structures and prevented erosion of the wall faces. Late in the life of 
the structures involved, the easternmost wall was built against the centre 
wall creating a still more massive block of walling and sharply reducing 
the size of room 28. The wall between rooms 33 and 34 was also a double, 
non-party wall. 

In sum, Level III:4A is architecturally rather unusual and, in several 
respects, often something more than a collection of simple peasant village 
houses. The only general pattern to the architectural layout that strikes 
one immediately is a preference for two-room buildings with the rooms one 
behind the other: e.g. rooms 8 and 9, 22 and 23, 30 and 29. The pattern 
is not invariable, however, since it would seem that room 5 represents a 
single structural unit. 

Level 111:5: Altogether at least five separate building phases of Level 111:5 
have been defined. Only one of these, the second from the bottom, Level 
III:5D, is discussed here (Fig. 20). In Level IIL5D we are sufficiently re- 
moved in time from Level IIL4A that there is little obvious relationship 
between this level and the one just discussed in detail. Were we in a posi- 
tion, however, to present the whole sequence of rebuildings in Level 111:5 
and the earliest configuration of Level 111:4 (IIL4B), a direct architec- 
tural development from the one to the other would be apparent. The one 
major feature that does link Level III : 5D to Level IIL4A is "Avenue 
Road" cutting across the southeast corner of the Deep Sounding. This is 
area 1 on the IIL5D plan. Throughout Level 111:5 and in Level 111:4 
there were houses or a house which fronted on this street. 

At the west end of the sounding in Ops. CI and C2 we have in Level 
IIL5D a complex of rooms that seems to belong to a very large structure, 
most of which is farther to the west beyond the area excavated. Area 24 
could have been a courtyard; the deposit was enigmatic on this point. 
Rooms 25 and 26 were small rooms of uncertain function. In the north- 
east corner of area 24, along its east wall, was a bench-like structure with 
two distinct units divided by a small partition. There was some evidence 

27 



of burning in the area, but not enough to suggest that the bench had actu- 
ally been used as a raised hearth. The north wall of this complex was 
actually two walls built against each other making a single wall of sufficient 
width to suggest that it might have originally had a defensive function. 

Part of this wall continued east and formed the northern limits of area 
23, which could also have been unroofed. Only small patches of good 
floor surface were found, and a large mass of semi-articulated brick work 
and debris, typical of the kind of material that accumulates in open occu- 
pied areas, was found in the center of the space. A bench ran along part 
of the north wall, around the northeast corner and along the east wall. A 
small mud brick bin was built against the face of the east wall, and farther 
south along the same wall was another bench. Room 22 may have be- 
longed to the same structure. The history of the several rebuildings in this 
area, particularly those associated with the north-south wall separating 
areas 23 and 24, suggests that despite the common north wall these two 
areas were parts of separate structural complexes. 

In somewhat modified form the massive north wall of areas 24 and 23 
continued into the eastern half of the Deep Sounding. North of that wall 
in Ops. Bl, BOl, Al and AOl sufficient evidence of wall stubs and par- 
tial rooms was recovered to indicate that there was once a complex of 
structures in this area. Thus if this north wall had ever performed a de- 
fensive function it could have done so only in Op. C2 and further to the 
east. 

It is tempting to see most of the rooms in the east half of the sounding 
as part of a single building complex. Areas 21 and 7 were almost certainly 
both open to the air, the former perhaps being little more than an open 
square at the west end of "Avenue Road',' the latter the courtyard of a 
house. Room 12 can be interpreted best as an entrance hall leading from 
the street into the inner courtyard. Rooms 8, 9, 10, 11, 13 and 14 would 
be living rooms. Room 8 is of particular interest for what was found in 
it: a total of nine pottery vessels smashed or whole on and in the floor 
and two large quern fragments on the floor (PI. XXII). Room 15, with 
its hearth, and rooms 16 and 20 all open off of the same courtyard. Room 
20 has a stone paved floor and a bench against the south wall. We do not 
know how access was gained to room 19, or, indeed, whether any such 
space was large enough to have functioned as a proper room. Both rooms 
6 and 17 could have been part of this same complex (they were in an- 
other building phase). Rooms 2, 3, 4 and 5 were, on the other hand, al- 
most certainly parts of another structural complex which lay to the east 
beyond the area excavated. 

Looking to the future, our evidence indicates that: 1) there is at least 
one lower phase of Level 111:5, III:5E, which remains to be completely 
cleared; 2) there is at least one further building level below that in Period 
III which may prove to be Level III:5F, but could be Level 111:6; and 3) 
in the southern third of the Deep Sounding there may be yet a third level 
of Period III date, for a small test pit in Op. A2 showed that the Period 
III deposit was much deeper there than at the north edge of the Deep 
Sounding. 

28 



POTTERY AND SMALL FINDS 

The typology for the Period III pottery presented in our earlier report is 
still valid and nothing need be added here. We have continued to keep 
complete sherd counts on all pottery found in Ops. Al, A2, AA1 and 
AA2, but have been forced to count only diagnostic sherds from other 
operations. The statistics from these counts are still being assembled and 
manipulated, and arc not available for publication at this time. We are 
also as yet unable to offer any firm, publishable suggestions for how the 
Period III ceramic sequence might profitably be sub-divided typologically. 
Suffice it to remark now that: 1) such sub-divisions certainly are emerging 
from our records and analysis; 2) we have yet to be able to duplicate the 
typological sequence worked out for Tepe Giyan, though there is some 
evidence from Godin III to suggest that vessels painted in the Giyan II 
style appear only in the upper strata of the Period III deposit; 22 3) 
painted Coarse Ware and red-slipped varieties of both Coarse and Common 
Ware are strikingly less common in the earlier strata of Period III; and 
4) in the lowest strata of Period III thus excavated a painted ware appears 
which is noticeably different from that found in the upper levels, and 
which cannot easily be paralleled in the ceramics from Tepe Giyan: e.g. 
Fig. 29, Nos. 5 and 6. This pottery is, however, both stylistically and 
technically related to the later Godin III painted wares. 

A selection of the numerous small finds from Period III is presented 
in Figures 33 to 36. 



Period II 



STRATIFICATION 

Very little new information has come to hand about the stratigraphic rela- 
tionship of Periods II and III, since in 1969 and 1971 in most of our 
work on the Period II structure we never went below the Period II deposit. 
In the excavation of Level III:2A in Ops. B3 and C3, which involved dig- 
ging through the floor of the large columned hall, we were able to confirm 
that the cutting made in Period II times to create a large level surface for 
the columned hall had, in fact, completely destroyed the remains of Level 
III: 1 in this area and indeed had somewhat disturbed the Level III:2A 
deposit. Thus once again the actual stratigraphic articulation of Period II 
and III was destroyed by the Period II builders. 

We have confirmed that there are two distinct stratigraphic phases to 
the central section of the Period II building; we suspected this to be the 
case at the time of our last report. 23 We know now, however, that the 
entire building had a fairly complicated history and was not planned, laid 
out and built as a whole. Since the evidence for that history is as much 
architectural as it is stratigraphic, it is discussed below along with the 
architectural description. 

29 



In terms of the actual placement of the building, the evidence is now 
conclusive that the Period II settlers were faced with the problem of put- 
ting their structure on a mound which already conformed to the shape of 
Godin Tepe as we found it prior to excavation. That is to say, the Upper 
Citadel was formed in Period III times and is not only the result of the 
debris and collapse of the Period II fortified manor house. On both the 
east-west and the north-south axis the Period II builders were forced to 
cut away Period III deposits in order to create level surfaces on which to 
build (Figs. 38 and 39). It is also now stratigraphically clear that the 
principal period of erosion along the north face of the Citadel Mound oc- 
curred between the Period III and Period II occupations. The Period II 
fortification, therefore, was specifically set so as to stand at the steep edge 
of a high mound which already stood 20 or more metres above the river 
bed. 

ARCHITECTURE 

Dealing with the west end of the fortified manor house first, we have dis- 
covered that the west wall of the large columned hall was once the west 
wall of the entire structure and that there was a tower (tower 13) at the 
northwest corner of the building entered by a doorway leading off of the 
columned hall (Fig. 37 and PL XXII). The north fortification wall be- 
tween towers 5 and 13 has two constructional phases, as suggested in our 
earlier report. In its original configuration it was of regular width and un- 
doubtedly had regularly spaced recesses and buttresses along its face. Later, 
perhaps at the same time that the small columned hall was constructed to 
the west, the wall was widened by an irregular width of brick facing which 
masked the original junction of tower 13 and the wall, and blocked two 
of the arrow slots and one of the recesses in the east wall of tower 13. 
The line of the original fortification wall is the dotted line shown in Fig. 37. 
Also at the later date the smaller columned hall was added west of the 
large hall. This columned hall has not been completely cleared of debris, 
since the deposit is deep and apparently sterile. Enough of the floor has 
been exposed, however, to reveal two unshaped stone column bases and 
to permit the reconstruction of a plan of two rows of four columns. The 
room had plastered mud brick benches on at least three sides. The break 
in the bench against the east wall is unexplained. Tower 1 5 was discovered 
at the northwest corner of the building. It was entered from the columned 
hall. The north and west faces of this tower, and the west face of the west 
wall of the small columned hall, were very poorly preserved. Excavation 
was possible only with brushes. The relationship of this wall to the lower 
Period III deposit was such as to make it certain that the Period II build- 
ing never extended farther to the west. The east face of tower 15 shows 
buttresses, recesses and arrow slots of the expected type, and we may as- 
sume a similar configuration for its north and west faces and probably for 
the west face of the west wall of the small columned hall. Similar buttresses 
and recesses once extended along the west face of the west wall of the large 
columned hall when it was the outside wall of the building. The filling in 
of those recesses apparently also involved some other alterations to that 

30 



wall which perhaps in part explain how the odd column base in the north- 
west corner of the large columned hall excavated in 1967 came to be cov- 
ered over with the brick-work of this wall. 24 The southern limits of the 
small columned hall, like those of the larger hall to the cast, are eroded 
away and even careful brush work has failed to reveal structural remains 
that can be articulated into a meaningful plan. 

Turning east from the large columned hall we come first to area 7, 8, 
6 and 3. The several features in this area, some of which were described 
in our last report, may very possibly not be part of the original Period II 
structure. There is some evidence to suggest that this large rectangular 
area was originally another columned room. Only excavations in 1973 in 
the centre of this area, as yet untouched, can provide the data needed to 
support this suggestion. In the meantime, it is probably better to leave 
open the possibility that the features of this area are chronologically re- 
lated to the "squatter's occupation" of the fortified manor house discussed 
in greater detail below. In any case, in its main outline this rectangular area 
was part of the original Period II construction and is contemporary with 
the large columned hall (Fig. 40, Stage 1 ), The east wall of this area ori- 
ginally had buttresses, recesses and arrow slots, some of which were filled 
in with laid brick when additions to the structure were made to the east. 
The south wall also had buttresses and recesses, and, we may assume, ar- 
row slots, though the wall was not preserved to a height sufficient for us 
to be certain on the latter point. The north wall between towers 4 and 5 
was originally published without recesses and buttresses, and we tended to 
associate the one recess that is shown on the earlier published plan with 
an Islamic burial that had cut into the wall at that point. 25 The wall was 
destroyed in 1967 in the opening of the Deep Sounding. When later exca- 
vations proved that it was the standard pattern for all outside walls of the 
Period II fortification to have buttresses, recesses and arrow slots, we were 
able to return to the original field notes which dealt with the section of 
wall between towers 4 and 5 and find evidence of problems and anomalies 
which indicated that we had chopped through the buttresses in the original 
excavation. On this "textual" evidence we have felt it permissable to re- 
construct the wall as shown in the new plan. 

The large columned hall and the rectangular area fronted by towers 
4 and 5 was the original Period II construction. The first addition to the 
east onto this core building was the north bank of magazines, rooms 19 to 
24 and 26 (Fig. 40, Stage 2). It was our discovery in 1967 of a small 
segment of this addition which led us to postulate an earlier phase of the 
Period II structure. 20 We now know, of course, that in fact it was a later 
phase. The main north fortification wall between towers 4 and 17 was 
built on a slightly different alignment than the segment between towers 4 
and 5. Again we have regular buttresses, recesses and arrow slots (PI. 
XXIV). Tower 17, the inner room of which remains unexcavated, was 
built on a slightly curving socle, and, as had towers 4 and 5, showed clear 
evidence of collapse and rebuilding (PI. XXV). The stone packing around 
the front or north edge of the tower appears to be secondary, and the re- 
building is on a different alignment from the original walls of the tower 

31 



(PI. XXVI). At the time this wing was added to the building, strong 
fortification was still very much a requirement of the builders. There is 
stratigraphic and structural evidence from along the north face of this sec- 
tion of walling which suggests, however, that the military aspects of our 
building became less and less important. 

In time occupational trash and architectural debris accumulated against 
the north face of the fortification wall. Eventually the entire socle was 
covered and the debris reached part way up the actual wall, blocking the 
lower sections of the arrow slots. In due time the wall was replastered. 
The accumulated deposit was not cleared away from the base of the wall, 
and the new plaster was simply spread over such face of the wall as was 
exposed. A second stage of accumulation then began. By the time a second 
coating of plaster was applied, the debris had in places accumulated to 
the point where several of the arrow slots were blocked for over half 
their length. Yet again the debris was not cleared away, and the plaster 
was applied to such wall face as was still exposed (PI. XXVIII). Surely if 
the ruler in residence had still been seriously concerned with matters of 
defence, he would have taken the time and energy to have the debris 
cleared away from in front of the wall and the fortification restored to its 
original state of military effectiveness. 

Rooms 19 to 24 of this addition, all reached from the long corridor, 
room 26, may not have been part of the original construction. One should 
note that all internal walls are unbonded and that several of the walls 
separating the rooms are built so that they block arrow slots. On the other 
hand, the arrow slots may have been simply built one to each recess and 
buttress regardless of what was planned for the inside of the building, on 
the theory that even an unusuable arrow slot looks threatening to an at- 
tacking enemy. 

These six rooms are magazines or large store rooms. There is some evi- 
dence that originally they were not closed at the corridor end. The small 
curtain wall across the south end of room 19 is perhaps a secondary addi- 
tion, and room 23 and 24 may yet prove to have had no south walls at all. 
In the case of room 21 the small doorway which gave access from the cor- 
ridor was preserved to above its lintel (PI. XXVIII). The lintel was made 
from two large rectangular bricks simply propped against each other to 
form a pointed arch. The doorway itself was worn smooth on both sides 
and on the threshold from people (or animals) brushing against it as they 
passed to and fro, and was impractically small. A normal sized man had 
to stoop and almost double himself up to pass through, and then could do 
so only by putting one leg through the doorway sideways as though going 
through a window. This suggests that the function of these rooms was such 
that it was not necessary for people to pass in and out of them with any 
ease or regularity. 

The rooms themselves have so far proved sterile of any materials asso- 
ciated with the actual occupation of the building; rooms 23 and 24 have 
yet to be emptied to floor level. Normally one would expect to find large 
pithoi in such store rooms. Given the absence of any such vessels and the 
unusual size of the doorways, it is tempting to wonder if we do not here 

32 



have something more like grain storage bins than a regular magazine. The 
doorways to some of the rooms give the impression of entrances to coal 
bins or silos. Perhaps grain was stored here with the whole room actually 
acting as the container. Equally possible, items which were not needed 
very often and which were all taken away at the time the building was 
peacefully abandoned, (e.g, weapons) could also have been stored here. 

Buttresses, recesses and arrow slots are found on the outer faces of 
both the east and south walls of this wing, indicating once again that for a 
while at least these were outside walls. In due time a second bank of six 
magazines or store rooms was added to the south (Fig. 40, Stage 3; PL 
XXIX). Room 27 must have actually functioned primarily as a corridor 
or hallway connecting the north bank of magazines with the central wing 
of the structure and with tower 34. Rooms 28 to 32 were store rooms. 
Room 28 had, however, been used in part as some kind of habitation 
room. A small curtain wall projected from its east wall giving a little pro- 
tection to a hearth area on the floor, and a complete vessel and fragments 
of other vessels were found in the immediate area of the hearth. Tower 34 
had a straight wall on the west side and a curving wall to the south and 
east. Once again we know that the south and west walls of this complex 
of rooms were outside fortification walls, for they had buttresses, recesses 
and arrow slots (assumed for the west wall since it was preserved only to 
a height which would have been below the base of any arrow slots). There 
may have originally been a tower at the southeast corner of this addition. 
Evidence for such, however, was thoroughly destroyed when the very mas- 
sive fortification tower enclosing rooms 36 and 37 was added at a later 
date. This is much the most impressive of all the towers on the building, 
for its south wall is 4 metres thick (PL XXX). This suggests that the 
tower was unusually high, perhaps projecting well above the highest part 
of the building and functioning as a watch tower. 

By this time our building had developed in a rather pragmatic way, 
growing along the curving steep north edge of the Upper Citadel mound. 
Apparently it now seemed logical to fill in the centre section between the 
south bank of magazines and the large columned hall (Fig. 4, Stage 4). 
Right angles and straight walls were, however, out of the question given 
the existing structure. This, combined with the fact that the walls in this 
area are very poorly preserved and that the whole was much chopped up 
by a later "squatter occupation", has meant that this wing is not as intelli- 
gible as one would like and may not become so even when excavations 
are completed. The following features are reasonably clear at this time 
(Figs. 42 and 37). Room 39 was a long corridor linking the south bank 
of magazines with this south central wing and, ultimately, with the north 
central wing as well. Room 43 was a ramp which sloped up gently to the 
north to a landing which led into area 44. Another means of access to the 
same area was up a flight of stairs in area 42 (PL XXXI). The whole of 
area 44 was probably a large landing of some kind from which one could 
go north into area 3 or on up a further flight of stairs to the second storey 
of the building. All of the structures in area 44 and the walling east of the 
stairs and west of room 43 were set on a massive stone foundation. This 

33 



would seem to be the foundation for a complicated stair system to the 
second floor. No other obvious function explains satisfactorily the massive- 
ness of the whole construction. 27 In area 46 we have some evidence for 
three and perhaps four mud brick column bases and what appears to be 
an elaborate Period II hearth against one wall. Rooms 41 and 40 were also 
part of the south central wing of the main Period II structure. The wall 
defining the southern limits of this south-central wing was also part of the 
Phase 4 building. It is interesting, in the light of the clear evidence in the 
debris and plastering of the north fortification suggesting an eventual de- 
cline in the military function of the building, to observe that this south wall 
has no recesses or buttresses and, in width and construction style, is much 
the weakest outside wall of the structure. 

The remaining features planned in this area are all related to Stage 5 
of the building, the "squatter occupation" (Figs. 41, 42 and 37). At some 
point fairly soon after the fortified manor house had been abandoned by 
the resident "khan", parts of the structure were taken over, modified, and 
used for purposes which one suspects were more mundane. Changes made 
in the ground plan included: 1) blocking the doorway between corridor 
39 and room 27; 2) blocking the west end of corridor 39; 3) blocking the 
ramp in area 43 at top and bottom and eventually filling it in solidly with 
brick and rubble; 4) blocking the stairway in area 42; 5) blocking the 
doorway between the north and south central wings; 6) constructing small 
curtain walls in the doorway of room 40; 7) changing one of the recesses 
in the east wall of room 40 into what appears to be a manger (one sus- 
pects that in the "squatter occupation" room 40 was used for an animal 
pen); 8) building some rather strange and flimsy stone walls in area 45 
(PI. XXXII); 9) putting a hearth in the northwest corner of area 44 (PL 
XXXIII); and 10) actually digging out the centre of the original west 
wall of room 45 to make two tiny little rooms, in one of which there was 
some evidence for a hearth. As noted above, the flimsy walls in areas 3, 
6, 7 and 8 may yet prove also to be part of the "squatter occupation". 

Clearly not "squatter" additions are the two segments of walling at the 
extreme east end of the building, which are not yet completely excavated. 
At some point in the structure's history the north fortification wall was 
extended still farther to the east, and room 33 was added. Chronologically, 
given the way in which its walls mask buttresses and arrow slots, it would 
appear that room 33 was added after the south bank of magazines had 
been in use for a time. Area 25 must at one time have been closed in, but 
we have yet to locate any north-south wall to the east. Further excavations 
will be conducted in this area in 1973 as well as in the unexcavated seg- 
ment to the west of area 46. 

Thus, in summary, the structural and stratigraphic history of the Per- 
iod II fortified manor house is as follows. First the large columned hall 
and the rectangular area to the east were constructed. Second to be built 
was the north bank of magazines. Then came the south bank of magazines. 
A fourth stage was the south-centre wing. The fifth stage was the "squatter 
occupation". The additions of the small columned hall, the wall between 
areas 18 and 25, room 33 and the large tower defining rooms 36 and 37 

34 



cannot be correlated with these major stages in the growth of the structure 
except that we can say that room 33 and the massive south-eastern watch 
tower were added after the south bank of magazines had been in use for 
a while. 

Certain more general and perhaps more speculative conclusions can be 
deduced from these architectural and stratigraphic facts. First, there is 
good evidence to suggest that the building was used for some little time 
before it was peacefully abandoned and turned over to the squatters. Its 
complex history and the considerable accumulation of trash against the 
fortification wall between towers 4 and 1 7 support this contention. Second, 
over time the owner of the building, who was probably a local "khan" or 
prince of some stature, grew in both political power and wealth. He seemed 
to find it necessary to increase significantly his storage space on at least 
two occasions, as well as to add the small columned hall to the public part 
of his palace. Third, Stages 1 to 3 of the construction and the addition of 
the small columned hall, the south-east corner watch tower and room 33 
all are events which took place in a period when defence and military con- 
siderations were of importance. In time, however, those considerations ei- 
ther became less important or perhaps faded entirely, the existing fortifica- 
tions were allowed to fall into disrepair from a military point of view, and 
construction Stage 4 was built with little concern for problems of defence. 

In all areas on the Citadel mound save one, our excavations have 
shown Period III remains immediately below the present surface of the 
site. In Op. AA9, however, we did uncover some very fragmentary and 
flimsy wall remains that appear to date to Period II. These are the only 
architectural elements dated to Period II off the Upper Citadel mound. 
The deposit was quite shallow and at times it was difficult to distinguish 
with certainty between Period II and Period III walls. Some parts of the 
stone wall foundations and probably all of the mud brick walls are Period 
II. At best we can say that in Period II there were in this area some struc- 
tural features which could have been either a simple house (s) or animal 
pens. We have, of course, no way of knowing whether these structures are 
contemporary with the main occupation of the fortified manor house or 
with the "squatter occupation". 

POTTERY AND SMALL FINDS 

The fortified manor house of Period II was swept clean before it was aban- 
doned and very few small finds or complete pottery vessels have been re- 
covered. The great mass of the sherds in the period II debris are, of course, 
of Period III date since they come from the decayed Period II bricks 
which were made of earth dug from earlier levels. Several large deposits 
of Period II pottery in prime context, taken together with material care- 
fully isolated on floors, have nevertheless permitted us to develop what is 
probably a fairly characteristic assemblage of Period II pottery. 28 The 
great bulk of this material must date to the latest phase of the building's 
occupation, and materials from the areas disturbed by the "squatters" 
must be taken as dating from their occupation. Thus, despite the fact that 
we are able to reconstruct the fairly complicated architectural history for 

35 



the building, we shall probably remain unable to document that history in 
ceramics. 

It must be assumed that the pottery recovered represents a terminus 
ante quern when it comes to dating the primary occupation of this building. 

The description of ware and varieties given for Period II pottery in our 
earlier report is still valid and essentially unchanged. Our analysis of shape 
types, however, has progressed considerably, though no attempt is made 
here to present a full range of the shapes known. The pottery illustrated in 
Figs. 44 to 49 represents an unsystematic selection of shape types illus- 
trative of the three major shape categories recovered: jars, pots and bowls. 
In general the assemblage can be characterized as having a great many dif- 
ferent shapes, with varieties of bowls most common. We do not think our 
individual shape types are particularly subtle — at least we like to consider 
ourselves "lumpers" rather than "splitters" and we have found our classi- 
fication easy to teach quickly to students — yet we have isolated well over 
a hundred different bowl shapes alone. Pots and jars appear to be found 
in far fewer varieties, but still there are a good many individual shapes. 
In making comparisons with other assemblages known to be generally in 
the same time range — e.g., segments of the Nush-i Jan and Baba Jan 
assemblages 29 — it is at once clear that, while Godin II yields at least some 
examples of almost every ceramic shape in those collections they in turn 
lack literally scores of the shapes that are well known at Godin in Period 
II. Such observations may have chronological significance, but we are more 
inclined for the moment to think that they represent functional differences 
amongst the three sites. 

Small finds (Fig. 50) include: a fragment of a limestone bowl, iron 
points, an iron sickle blade, a bone arrow (?) head, bone spatulas, a 
bronze or copper fibula, and the fragments of a bone hair comb which 
was most likely worn for decoration rather than actually used to comb the 
hair. 



36 



Conclusions 



As in 1969, it is still much too early to attempt any broad conclusions re- 
garding the results of the excavations at Godin Tepe and Seh Gabi. Fur- 
ther excavations will be in progress while this manuscript is in press and 
the bulk of the analysis of the materials is still to be completed. 

It may, however, be useful to review the programme for continued 
excavation described in the conclusion to our earlier report to see first, 
what we have accomplished since 1969, second, what we then hoped to do 
but still have before us, and third, what new tasks have suggested them- 
selves as new materials have come to hand. 

We have yet to find a site in the Kangavar area which falls in the 
Sarab or Tepe Guran time range and which might yield materials related 
on the one hand with Ganj Dareh Tepe and, on the other, with the earliest 
assemblages yet recovered by the Godin Project. Frankly, we have yet to 
look for such a site in a systematic way, and such a search, perhaps fol- 
lowed by excavation, is a major task for the future. 

We have, however, gone far with the excavations at Seh Gabi toward 
our stated goal of a better understanding of Godin Periods VI and VII. 
No doubt it is in part a blessing in disguise that these same excavations 
have shown us how much was missing in the Godin Tepe sequence from 
the late Neolithic period in the Kangavar area. 

Substantial areas of both Periods IV and V should be cleared in the 
1973 excavations, bringing to an end our work in the area of the Deep 
Sounding. 

Our stated goal of recovering a good architectural and stratigraphic 
sequence of Period III material over a sizable horizontal area has been 
essentially met through the excavations to date in the Deep Sounding. The 
substantial results from our work on Period III provide a focal point for 
a cultural analysis of the many bits and pieces of evidence available on 
second millennium central western Iran. 

Finally in terms of aims stated earlier, the 1973 field season should see 
the complete recovery of all the extant remains at Godin dating to Period 
II. 

What important new problems and questions have come to light since 
our last report? First, we have a long way to go before we sort out all 
of the crucial chronological issues and problems in cultural history raised 
by our first season of excavations at Seh Gabi. A better understanding of 
these materials will not only clarify the archaeology of central western Iran 
in the late Neolithic, but will also permit us to link this area in this time 
range with regions of Iran to the east and north. Second, we should under- 
take more work in the cemetery area on the southern Outer Town flat at 
Godin. We need to know more about burial patterns in Period III and, as 
something of a bonus, might recover more material from the still very enig- 
matic Iron Age I and II periods. Third and finally, it is now clear that a 
complete re-survey of this part of the Zagros is necessary. The results of 
the Godin Project have shown how crude the data on ceramic types used 

37 



in previous surveys of the region was; with the better chronological con- 
trols made possible by the excavations at Godin and Seh Gabi we will be 
able to recover settlement patterns for this area in much finer historical 
units. With such a survey complete, we should have a pretty good idea 
of where to go and dig next for a maximum return of historical informa- 
tion. 



38 



Appendix A 



The Seh Gabi Chipped Stone: Preliminary Observations 

The sample of chipped stone recovered at Seh Gabi consists of almost 1000 
pieces. Of these, about 20 small flakes and blade segments are of obsidian 
(colours range from almost clear to black, and include a green specimen). 
Sources of the obsidian may be suggested by the analysis currently in pro- 
gress. In addition to obsidian, the excavations produced cobbles and angu- 
lar fragments of a white quartzitic stone; a few smaller pieces of this mate- 
rial may have been worked. The bulk of the chipped stone recovered at 
Seh Gabi is of flint or chert; the heterogeneity of colors and textures sug- 
gests the use of river cobbles washed down from many sources in the 
Zagros. Many of the flakes, which comprise a large proportion of the total 
sample, are of a dark reddish-brown flint which was almost never used in 
the manufacture of blades. 

Very few cores were found at Seh Gabi. The flint blades, which com- 
prise almost one-third of the collection, are varied in colour, texture, and 
size. There are very few complete blades; however, at least some fragmen- 
tary blades were not discarded immediately. A few blade segments have 
sheen on one of the broken ends, and a few are retouched along one or 
both of the broken edges. Retouch, found on almost all of the blades 
recovered, is usually limited to the ventral surface. Most blades are heavily 
retouched on one edge and much more lightly retouched on the other. Usu- 
ally the more steeply worked edge has more sheen than the other; some- 
times it is the only edge on which sheen is visible. This may indicate that 
the edge with the less steep angle was hafted. Sheen is visible on between 
one-third and one-half of the blades, and occurs on both ventral and dor- 
sal surfaces. The vast majority of blades has retouch or use along both 
edges; very few blades were worked in any other way. In view of the fore- 
going, and lacking metal, bone, or wooden sickles, it is assumed that at 
least some of the Seh Gabi blades were used as sickles. 

The remainder of the chipped stone sample consists of small flakes, 
some of them worked and the majority unworked. The worked flakes in- 
clude a few notched pieces, some drill or perforator-like pieces, rare points 
(by which term no functional connotation is implied), a few scrapers, and 
several outils ecailles, ?,{ > which may have been used as punches. One or 
more edge of many irregularly shaped flakes possess tiny nicks which may 
be the result of brief and casual use. 

The Seh Gabi assemblage includes very few artifacts which might be 
termed microliths. There are four microblades (but no cores), one of them 
very steeply backed. There are also a few small geometric pieces, some of 
which may be re-used blade fragments. 

The small size of the Seh Gabi chipped stone sample and the relatively 
large number of provenances, as well as the long time represented by the 
sample, preclude the denfiition of any clear horizontal or temporal varia- 
tion until more detailed analysis is conducted. Study of the stratigraphic 
contexts and horizontal distributions of the chipped stone artifacts should 

39 



suggest possible interpretations of their functions. Such interpretations may 
be modified or further supported by the analysis, currently being carried 
out by Lynn Ceci and Carol Hamlin, of an additional sample to be col- 
lected during the 1973 excavation. A detailed description of the chipped 
stone assemblage will be included in the final publication of Seh Gabi. 



Appendix B 



The Seh Gabi Osteological Material: Preliminary Observations 

Osteological evidence for the existence of the following species at Seh Gabi 
has been established: 

Hemiechinus sp., probably auritus Long-earned Hedgehog 

This is certainly a species of Hemiechinus, probably auritus. Based on 
present species distributions, this appears to be the only species in 
western and southwestern Iran. 

Lepus sp. Hare 

This is a small species, and the fact that the specimen itself is from 
an immature animal makes species identification difficult. 

Cricetulus sp. Gray Hamster 

Possibly this genus is present. If this is in fact the case, the gray ham- 
ster C.migratorius is the probable species, being commonly found in 
the north and west of Iran today. This specimen may be intrusive. 

Microtus sp. Vole 

Apodemus sylvaticus Field Mouse (Wood Mouse) 

Mus musculus House Mouse 

Rattus rattus House Rat 

Canis lupus Wolf 

Canis aureus (probably) Jackal 

Vulpes vulpes Red Fox 

Canis familiaris Dog 

This species appears to be present, based on the analysis of two man- 
dible fragments and a number of teeth (especially lower M4). 

Mustela nivalis Weasel 

Vormela or Martes sp. Polecat or Martin 

Meles meles Badger 

Cervus elaphus Red Deer, Stag 

Capra hi reus Persian Goat 

40 



Ovis orientalis Sheep 

Bos sp. Wild (?) Ox 

Sus scrofa Wild (?) Hog 

Equus sp. ? 

Also found were: one humerus representing Testudo sp. (a species of 
land tortoise); one mandible fragment (about 9-10 mm) representing a 
species of lizard; a large number of shell fragments representing Unio sp., 
a riverine clam; and several shells representing Helix sp., a land snail. 

Approximately half of the available material has been sorted, and two- 
thirds of that material is washed, labelled and identified. 

Capra and Ovis remains made up 60% of the studied bones; Cervus, 
15% ; Bos, 5% ; Sus, 5% ; Rodentia, 6% ; Carnivora, 7% ; and other bones 
(including Testudo, Helix and Unio remains), 2%. 

The large proportion of Ovis and Capra bones might seem to indicate 
a degree of cultural control (that is, domestication), but a decision on this 
matter must wait for a closer osteological investigation of the material. 
Over half the specimens of Ovis and Capra were subadult or young adult 
specimens. There were several very young (neonate) specimens and a few 
old, arthritic specimens. The question of domestication of Bos and Sus 
must wait further study. At present, there are too few specimens to permit 
a decision. 

Many of the carnivore species were also represented by very young 
specimens, particularly Meles meles and Cams familiaris. 



41 



Footnotes 



1. Young, 1969a. 

2. The preparation of this report has been very much a joint effort. In the main, 
however, Levine wrote the section on Seh Gabi, Young the section on Godin 
Tepe. 

3. Young, 1966. 

4. A small sounding between mounds A and E was excavated with the objective of 
testing this proposition. The results proved inconclusive. 

5. Young, 1962a and b. 

6. A ten metre grid oriented to magnetic north (May, 1971) was imposed over the 
entire area of Seh Gabi. The north-south axis is designated by a letter, e.g. G, 
the east- west axis by an Arabic numeral, e.g. 21. 

7. The identification was made by Dr. F. J. Wicks of the Dept. of Mineralogy, 
rom, to whom we tender our thanks. 

8. One component of the assemblage, the painted pottery, is known from the site 
of Tepe Giyan (Contenau & Chirshman, 1935), where it is assigned to levels 
Vc and Vd (McCowan, 1942:13). These levels at Giyan are arbitrarily deter- 
mined, and we know little more about them than the drawings of some of the 
painted pottery found. From the Seh Gabi excavations, it is abundantly clear 
that the Giyan levels are mixed. 

9. The stratigraphy of these upper levels was disturbed by numerous animal bur- 
rows, and it was often impossible to form proper stratigraphic links between the 
preserved areas. 

10. Aside from Dalma Tepe and survey material, the only other site with an im- 
portant collection of similar material is Tepe Siabid. Unfortunately, we have not 
been able to consult this material as yet, but it must be taken into account be-' 
fore we can draw anything approximating a full picture of our present under- 
standing of the cultural dynamics involved in this period. After this manuscript 
had gone to press, another Dalma period site was published. See R. L. and R. S. 
Solecki, "Tepe Seavan, Azerbaijan," Bulletin of the Asia Institute of Pahlavi Uni- 
versity, No. 3 (1973), 98-116. 

11. Our thanks are due to Prof. R. H. Dyson, Jr., Curator of the Near East Section, 
for permission to examine this material. 

12. Young, 1969a: 3-6. 

13. Young, 1969a: 4. 

14. A sherd of this ware from Pd. VII at Godin is published in Young, 1969a, Fig. 
6, 3. 

15. Dyson, 1965 and 1968. 

16. See Young, 1969a: 9 for a discussion of evidence on the stratigraphic and chrono- 
logical relationship between Periods IV and III. 

17. In many ways it would be preferable to describe the stratification and architec- 
ture of the Deep Sounding from bottom to top. The reverse procedure is fol- 
lowed here for one basic reason: until the excavations and the analysis of the 
materials recovered is complete it is much easier and perhaps potentially even 
less confusing to deal with the materials as they were excavated, i.e. from the 
top or most recent level down. 

18. Young, 1969a: 11-12. 

19. After having coined the term "spiral stratigraphy" in the field we discovered we 
were not the first to use it: see Haines, 1969: 1. Our thanks to Harvey Weiss 
for bringing this reference to our attention. 

20. Young, 1969a: 12-14. 

21. Young, 1969a: 11. 

22. For further discussion of the comparative chronology of the Period III pottery, 
see Young, 1969b. 

42 



23. Young, 1969a: 23-24. 

24. Young, 1969a: 29. 

25. Young, 1969a: Fig. 36. 

26. Young, 1969a: 25 and Fig. 38. The feature called a drain in Fig. 38 was, of 
course, the outer end of the first arrow slot we found, but we did not then 
know what we had found. 

27. One other possible explanation for this mass of stones comes to mind, but can- 
not be demonstrated, if at all, until the structure is dismantled. It is perhaps 
reasonable to assume that in Stage 1 of the building there was a corner fortifica- 
tion tower in this area. That tower would have been dismantled in the construc- 
tion of Stage 4. The stone could be the remnants of the foundations for that 
tower. 

28. For example, a great mass of sherds was discovered at the extreme east end of 
corridor 26 in a large deposit of occupational trash and probably human waste. 
Since this was the blind end of the corridor it seems to have been used as a 
dumping ground and also as a toilet. Perhaps the sherds were used as toilet 
paper, a common enough practice in the Near East today. We wish to thank 
Edward Keall for this suggested interpretation. 

29. Stronach, 1969: Figs. 6 and 7. Goff, 1968: Fig. 10 Cf. particularly our Fig. 45, 
No. 20 with Goff, 1968: Fig. 10, No. 15. We wish to thank both David Stron- 
ach and Claire Goff for permitting us to examine in a preliminary fashion their 
pottery, for taking the time to go through our materials, and for many hours of 
pleasant discussion about the finer points of Iron Age III archaeology. 

30. Brezillon, 1971: 288. 



43 



References 



BREZILLON, 

1971 



CONTENEAU. 

1935 
DYSON, R. H 

1965 



1968 

GOFF, C. 

1968 



MICHEL N. 

La Denomination des Ob jets de Pierre tail lee, IV e supplement a 
"Gallia Prehistoire", seconde edition. Editions du Centre National de 
la Recherche Scientifique, Paris. 

G. and R. GHIRSHMAN 

Fouilles du Tepe-Giyan. Paris. 
, JR. 

"Problems in the Relative Chronology of Iran, 6000-2000 B.C.", pp. 

215-256 in R. W. Ehrich, ed., Chronologies in Old World Archaeology, 

Chicago. 

"Annotations and Corrections of the Relative Chronology of Iran, 

1968," ,47,4, 72: 308-313. 



"Luristan in the first half of the first millennium B.C. 
134. 



6: 105- 



HAINES, R. C. 

1969 



Excavations in the plain of Antioch II. The structural remains of the 
later phases. Oriental Institute Publications, XCV. Chicago. 



MCCOWAN 

1942 

STRONACH, D 
1969 



D. E. 



The Comparative Stratigraphy of Early Iran, SAOC, 23, Chicago. 



"Excavations at Tepe Nush-i Jan, 1967," Iran, 7: 1-20. 

YOUNG, T. C. JR. 

1962a "Taking the History of the Hasanlu Area back another five thousand 
years: Sixth and Fifth millennium settlement in the Solduz valley, 
Persia," 1LN, 241 (6431): 707-709. 

1962b "Dalma Painted Wares," Expedition, 5 (2): 38-39. 

1966 "Survey in Western Iran, 1961," JNES, 25 (4) : 228-239. 

1969a Excavation at Godin Tepe: First Progress Report. Royal Ontario 
Museum, Art and Archaeology, Occasional Paper 17. Toronto. 

1969b "The chronology of the late third and second millennia in central west- 
ern Iran as seen from Godin Tepe," AJA, 73 (3): 287-291. 



44 



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m 


ON 

Ti- 
ro 


o 
m 




r- 


r- 


r-- r^- r^ r~- 


f- 


r-- r- 


r^- 


t*- 


r- 


r^- 


r-« 


-6 




















k, 
























54 



Figures 







1 Central and North Western Iran. 



56 




2 Contour map of Seh Gahi and environs. 



57 



ivNOiiiSNvai ►{- vwiva 




3 Seh Gabi. South Section, G20 and G21 



58 




4 Seh Gabi. Mound B. Level Al, architecture. 



59 




p 


< 


T 


O) 


—I 


*J 


V™ 


LU 


o 




> 


CM 

O 




LU 






—1 


CD 


MB 




o 


OQ 




CO 


< 


no 


O 


O 








c 


00 


X 


z 

3 


c 
o 


LU 


O 




c/) 


s 


a. 
O 



5 Seh Gabi. Mound B, Level A2, architecture. 

60 




6 Seh Gabi. Mound B, Level B. architecture. 



61 



+ 



o> 



CO 
< 



(/) 






UJ O 

Q S 



2 a 





7 Seh Gabi, Mound B, Level C, architecture. 

62 




8 Seh Gabi. Mound B. Level C. detail of wall N. 



63 



Figure 9 — Catalogue 



Fig. No. Locus 



Description 



1 


Mound B, 




surface 


2 


G21,Lot6 


3 


G19,Lot71 


4 


G21,Lot25 


5 


G22, Lot 1 3 


6 


Mound B, 




surface 


7 


G20, Lot 67 


8 


G21,Lot6 


9 


G21,Lot6 


10 


G21,Lot24 


11 


G21,Lot62 


12 


G21,Lot55 


13 


G22, Lot 18 


14 


G22, Lot 16 


15 


G22, Lot 10 


16 


H19, Lot 20 


17 


H19, Lot 27 


18 


G22, Lot 19 


19 


G22, Lot 18 



Double slipped. White. Black. 

Unslipped. Orange buff. Reddish brown. 

Double slipped. White. Reddish brown. 

Double slipped. White. Purple. 

Double slipped. White. Purple. Overtired to vitrification. 

Double slipped. White. Black. 

Double slipped. White. Reddish purple. 

Unslipped. Orange buff. Red. 

Double slipped. White. Reddish brown. 

SG71-79. Tehran. 

SG7 1-200. Tehran. 

Double slipped. White with red wash. Purple. 

Double slipped. White. Reddish brown. Mica. 

Unslipped. Orange buff. Red. 

Double slipped. White. Red and purple. 

Double slipped. White. Red and black. 

Double slipped. White. Red and black. 

Double slipped. White. Red and purplish-brown. 

Double slipped. White. Red and purplish-brown. 



64 






* 



9 




l< 






15 




10 




i% 



16 



/)' 



l\ 




6 




8 




11 





17 




18 



9 Seh Gabi, Dalma painted wares. 



5 

1 I I I I I 



\ ! 



19 




65 



Figure 10 — Catalogue 



Fig. No. Locus Description 



G22, Lot 14 Outside double slipped, red over cream. Inside single 

slipped. Red. Smoothed. 
G22, Lot 14 Outside single slipped, cream. Inside and rim double 

slipped, red over cream. Inside smoothed. Manipulation 

done with blunt ended instrument from above. Impressions 

up to 4.5 mm. deep. 
G22, Lot 14 Single slipped. Red. Incisions shallow. 2 mm. Fairly 

uniform depth. Smoothed. 
G22, Lot 15 Double slipped. Pink over cream. Inside rough, as if reeds 

packed up against wall while clay was soft. Matte. 

Red to orange light slip. Smoothed. 

Red slip. Matte. 

Red slip. Outside smoothed. 

Red slip. Entire surface below rim rough and pitted. Blunt 

instrument used to destroy surface. Depth of impressions 

vary widely. Matte. 

Red slip. Colour varies from red to tan. Impressions made 

with rounded instrument. Depth varies greatly. Smoothed. 

Pink slip. Impressions made with fingernail. Matte. 

Outside red slipped. Inside double slipped, red over cream. 

Surface heavily pitted with blunt instrument. Inside matte. 

Double slipped. Red over cream. Matte. 

Cream slipped. Matte. 



5 
6 
7 
8 


G22, Lot 14 
G22, Lot 15 
G22, Lot 15 
G22, Lot 14 


9 


G22, Lot 14 


10 
11 


G22, Lot 17 
G22, Lot 14 


12 

13 


G22, Lot 17 
G22, Lot 26 



66 




8 





5 10 

MINI |c. 



10 Seh Gahi. Dalma plain and surface manipulated wares. 



67 



Figure 11 — Catalogue 



Fig. No. Locus 



Description 



1 

2 
3 
4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 

13 

14 

15 
16 
17 

18 
19 
20 

21 

22 

23 
24 
25 
26 
27 
28 
29 
30 

31 

32 



G20,Lot23 
G19, Lot 6 
G18, Lot 12 
Mound B, 
surface 
H19, Lot 10 
HI 9, surface 
H19,Lot6 
G19, Lot 103 
G20, Lot 62 
G19, Lot 103 
G18, Lot 2 
G19, Lot 99 
G18, Lot 5 
Mound B, 
surface 
G20, Lot 8 
H19,Lot 10 
G 19, Lot 107 

G19, Lot 97 
G19, Lot 98 
G19, Lot 97 
Mound B, 
surface 
G19, Lot 103 

G19, Lot 4 
G21,Lot 14 
G20, Lot 35 
G20, Lot 35 
G20, Lot 35 
G18, Lot 3 
H19, Lot 34 
G19, surface 

G18, Lot 16 
G20, Lot 14 



Greenish. Black. Matte. Hand made. 
Buff. Black. Matte. Wheel made. 
Buff. Brown to Black. Matte. Wheel made. 
Buff. Black. Matte. Hand made. 

Buff. Brown. Matte. Wheel made. 
Tannish red. Black. Matte. Wheel made. 
Buff. Black. Matte. Wheel made. 
Buff slip. Red brown. Matte. Wheel made. 
Buff. Black. Smoothed. Wheel made. 
Greenish. Black. Smoothed. Wheel made. 
Buff. Black. Smoothed. Wheel made. 
Buff. Black. Matte. Wheel made. 
Greenish. Black. Matte. Wheel made. 
Buff. Black. Matte. Wheel made. 

Buff. Brown. Matte. Wheel made. 

Buff. Black. Matte. Wheel made. 

Greenish. Black. Matte. Wheel made. Painted line on 

inside of rim. 

Buff. Black. Smoothed. Wheel made. 

Buff. Black. Smoothed. Wheel made. 

Buff. Black. Smoothed. Wheel made. 

Buff. Black. Smoothed. Wheel made. 

Greenish. Black. Matte. Wheel made. Traces of paint 

on inside. 

Buff. Black. Matte. Hand made. 

Buff. Black. Matte. Wheel made. 

Buff. Black. Matte. Wheel made. 

Buff. Black. Smoothed. Wheel made. 

Buff. Reddish brown. Matte. Wheel made. 

Buff. Reddish brown. Smoothed. Wheel made. 

Buff. Black. Smoothed. Wheel made. 

Buff. Brown. Matte. Wheel made. Painted line on 

inside rim. 

Greenish. Black. Smoothed. Wheel made. 

Buff. Black. Smoothed. Wheel made. 



All Seh Gabi painted ware 



68 









6 









(3 

24 

5 10 

1 I I I I I |cm 




32 



l l Seh Gabi, Seh Gabi painted wares. 



69 



Figure 12 — Catalogue 



Fig. No. Field No. 



Locus 



Present Location 



1 


SG 71-162 


Mound B, G20, Lot 26 


2 


SG 71-137 


Mound B, G20, Lot 18 


3 


SG 71-128 


Mound B, G20, Lot 10 


4 


SG71-11 


Mound B, G20, Lot 2 


5 


SG 71-127 


Mound B, G20, Lot 21 


6 


SG71-115 


Mound B, HI 9, Lot 13 


7 


SG 71-53 


Mound B, H19, Lot 2 


8 


SG 71-130 


Mound B, G20, Lot 21 


9 


SG71-138 


Mound B, H19, Lot 22 


10 


SG 71-77 


Mound B, G20, Lot 17 


11 


SG71-135 


Mound B, H19, Lot 16 


12 


SG 71-201 


Mound B, G18, Lot 30 


13 


SG 71-176 


Mound B,F 17, Lot 17 



N.A. 

Tehran 

N.A. 

N.A. 

Tehran 

Tehran 

N.A. 

N.A. 

N.A. 

Tehran 

Tehran 

Tehran 

Tehran 



70 




12 Seh Gabi. Sch Gabl plain wares. 



71 



Figure 13 — Catalogue 



Fig. No. Locus Description 



1 


F46, Lot 9 


2 


F46, Lot 9 


3 


F46, Lot 9 


4 


P43,Lotl9 


5 


F46, Lot 9 


6 


P43, Lot 19 


7 


F46, Lot 9 


8 


F46, Lot 8-9 


9 


F46, Lot 8 


10 


F46, Lot 15 


11 


F46, Lot 2 


12 


F46, Lot 8 


13 


F46, Lot 20 


14 


Y50, Lot 4a 


15 


F46, Lot 8 


16 


F46, Lot 8-9 


17 


Y50, Lot 4 


18 


K38, Lot 4 



Buff slipped coarse ware. Buff. Smoothed. 

Buff slipped coarse ware. Buff. Smoothed. 

Buff slipped coarse ware. Buff. Smoothed. 

Buff slipped coarse ware. Buff. Smoothed. 

Buff slipped coarse ware. Buff. Smoothed. 

SG 71-2. N.A. 

Red slipped coarse ware. Reddish Buff. Smoothed. 

Buff slipped coarse ware. Buff. Smoothed. 

Plain buff coarse ware. Orange buff. Outside smoke 

blackened. Matte. 

Plain buff coarse ware. Buff. Interior smoke-blackened. 

Smoothed. 

SG 71-224. N.A. 

Plain buff coarse ware. Buff. Exterior smoke-blackened. 

Matte. 

Plain buff coarse ware. Buff. Matte. 

Common ware. Buff. Smoothed. 

Plain buff coarse ware. Buff. Smoothed. 

Red slipped coarse ware. Red. Burnished. 

Common ware. Buff. Interior buff slipped. Smoothed. 

Common ware. Buff slipped. Burnished. 



72 




13 Seh Gahi. Godin VII and VI plain wares. 



73 



Figure 14 — Catalogue 



Fig. No. Locus 



Description 



1 


Y50, Lot 7 


2 


Y50, Lot 6 


3 


Mound F, 




surface 


4 


Y50, Lot 4a 


5 


Mound F, 




surface 


6 


Y50, Lot 3a 


7 


Y50, Lot 5 


8 


Y50, Lot 6 


9 


Y50, Lot 4a 


10 


Y50, Lot 2a 


11 


Y50, Lot la 


12 


Y50,Lot 22 


13 


Y50, Lot 6 


14 


Mound F, 




surface 


15 


F46, Lot 4 


16 


Y50, Lot 5 


17 


Y50, Lot 7 


18 


Y50, Lot 5 


19 


Y50, Lot 32 


20 


Y50, Lot 6 



White slipped. Brown. 
White slipped. Black. 
Unslipped. Buff. Brown. 

Unslipped. White. Black. 
Unslipped. Buff. Black. 

White slipped. Brown. 
Unslipped. Buff. Brown. 
White slipped. Brown. 
Unslipped. White. Brown. 
Pinkish slipped. Brown. 
Unslipped. Buff. Red. # 
Unslipped. Buff. Black! 
Unslipped. White. Black. 
White slipped. Brown. 

White slipped. Brown. 
White slipped. Brown. 
Unslipped. White. Black. 
White slipped. Brown. 
Unslipped. White. Black. 
Unslipped. Buff. Brown. 



All Pd. VI painted fine ware. 
All wheel made and smoothed. 



74 




_, 






D 




\ 



x v^^ 



6 






19 



5 

' 



10 

Jem 



20 




14 Seh Gabi, Godin VI painted wares. 



75 



Figure 15 — Catalogue 


Fig. No. 


Field No. 


Locus 


Present Location 


1 


SG 71-36 


Mound B, G20, Lot 13 


N.A. 


2 


SG 71-65 


Mound B, surface 


N.A. 


3 


SG 71-196 


Mound E, F46, Lot 16 


N.A. 


4 


SG 71-143 


Mound B,G 18, Lot 6 


N.A. 


5 


SG 71-13 


Mound B,G20, Lot 4 


N.A. 


6 


SG 71-41 


Mound A, K38, Lot 8 


N.A. 


7 


SG 71-28 


Mound B, F17, Lot 19 


Tehran 


8 


SG 71-177 


Mound E, F46, Lot 6 


N.A. 


9 


SG 71-152 


Mound B, G20, Lot 2 


N.A. 


10 


SG 71-207 


Mound B,G21, Lot 65 


Tehran 


11 


SG 71-244 


Mound B, G20, Lot 67-68 


Tehran 


12 


SG 71-165 


Mound B, G21,Lot43 


Tehran 


13 


SG 71-192 


Mound E, F46, Lot 7 


Tehran 


14 


SG71-19 


Mound B, G19, Lot 1 


Tehran 


15 


SG 71-166 


Mound B,G21,Lot47 


N.A. 


16 


SG 71-24 


Mound B, F17, Lot 7 


N.A. 


17 


SG 71-51 


Mound B, H19, Lot 3 


Tehran 


18 


SG 71-96 


Mound B, G18, Lot 5 


Tehran 


19 


SG 71-107 


Mound B,G19, Lot 47 


N.A. 


20 


SG 71-42 


Mound B, G20, Lot 17 


N.A. 


21 


SG 71-215 


Mound B, G22, Lot 18 


N.A. 


22 


SG 71-169 


Mound B, G21, Lot 39 


Tehran 


23 


SG 71-205 


Mound B,G18, Lot 31 


Tehran 


24 


SG 71-132 


Mound B, G18, surface 


Tehran 


25 


SG 71-25 


Mound B, F17, Lot 7 


N.A. 



76 




15 Seh Gabi, small finds. 



77 



Figure 16 — Catalogue 


Fig. No. 


Field No. 


Locus 


Present Location 


lb 


SG 71-229 


F46, Bl, Lot 10, covering la 


N.A. 


la 


SG 71-230 


F46, Bl,Lot 10 


N.A. 


2 


SG 71-234 


G18, Bl,Lot36 


N.A. 


3 


SG 71-180 


G20, B5, Lot 60 


Tehran 


4b 


SG 71-227 


F46, B2, Lot 20, covering 4a 


Tehran 


4a 


SG 71-228 


F46, B2, Lot 20 


Tehran 



78 



1b 



1a 




10 

1 I I I I I 



20 
I cm 



16 Seh Gabi. burials. 



79 




7 Contour map of Godin Tepe. Shaded areas indicate extent of excavations as of 
the end of the 1971 field season. 



80 




Godin, South Section. Operations AA2. A2. B2 and C2: the Master Sectic 
the Deep Sounding. 



83 



Figure 19 — Catalogue 



Fig. No. Locus Description 



la A01,Lot24 Gd. 71-313. N.A. 

2a A01, Lot 24 Gd. 71-312. Tehran. 

3a AOl, Lot 24 Gd. 71-311. Tehran. 

4a AOl, Lot 24 Gd. 71-310. N.A. 

1 AOl, Lot 24 Common Ware. Black. Burnished. 

2 BOl, Lot 86 Grey-black Coarse Ware. Grey. Smoothed. 

3 AOl, Lot 28 Common Ware. Black. Burnished. 

4 AOl, Lot 30 Common Ware. Grey Smoothed. 

5 BOl, Lot 42 Grey-black Coarse Ware. Grey-brown. Smoothed. 

6 BOl, Lot 36 Gd. 71-350. Discarded. 



84 





5 

1 I I I I I 



10 
Jem 







19 Godin, Period IV pottery and small finds. 




20 Godin, Level III:5D structures. 

86 




21 Godin, Level ITI:4A structures. 



87 




22 Godin, Level TTI:2C structures. 



88 







23 Godin. Level III:2A structures. 



89 



90 



GODIN TEPE 1969 

period n 

1 2 3 4 5 



d) 




24 Godin. Period Til structures. Operations AA9 and AAIO. 



Figure 25 — Catalogue 



Fig. No. Field No. 



Locus 



Present Location 



1 


Gd. 69-438 


B3,st. 4, Bur. 3 


2 


Gd. 69-222 


C2, st. 5, Area 6 


3 


Gd. 69-443 


B3,st. 4, Bur. 3 


4 


Gd. 69-703 


AAl,st. 14, Area 10 


5 


Gd. 69-260 


AA2, st. 13, Area 15 


6 


Gd. 69-629 


Period II fill 


7 


Gd. 71-7 


B2, Lot 130 


8 


Gd. 69-45 


AA2, st. 10, Area 12 


9 


Gd. 69-704 


Bl, Lot 89 


10 


Gd. 69-675 


R, Bur. 2 


11 


Gd. 69-339 


C2, st. 5, Area 5 


12 


Gd. 69-767 


B3, st. 4, Bur. 2 


13 


Gd. 69-599 


C2, Lot 53 


14 


Gd. 69-740 


Al,Lot99 


15 


Gd. 69-760 


Bl, wall cache 


16 


Gd. 69-463 


C3, Bur. 1 


17 


Gd. 69-731 


Al, Lot 61 


18 


Gd. 69-730 


AA1. st. 14, Area 10 



Discarded 
Tehran 

N.A. 

N.A. 

Tehran 

N.A. 

N.A. 

N.A. 

N.A. 

N.A. 

Tehran 

Discarded 

N.A. 

Discarded 

Tehran 

N.A. 

Discarded 

Discarded 






92 







5 

1 I I I I I 



10 

_Jcm 



25 Godin, Period ITT pottery. 



93 



Figure 26 — Catalogue 



Fig. No. Field No. Locus Present Location 

Discarded 

Tehran 

N.A. 

Discarded 

N.A. 

N.A. 

Tehran 

N.A. 

Tehran 



1 


Gd. 69-227 


AA2, st. 11, Area 12 


2 


Gd. 69-598 


C2, Lot 53 


3 


Gd. 69-673 


R, Bur. 2 


4 


Gd. 69-739 


Al, Lot 101 


5 


Gd. 69-248 


AAl,st. 11, Area 4 


6 


Gd. 69-316 


B3,st. 3, Area 4 


7 


Gd. 69-753 


C2, st. 8B, Area 104 


8 


Gd. 69-460 


A2, st. 8, Area 23 


9 


Gd. 69-732 


B2, st. 12, Area 6 



94 







26 Godin, Period III pottery. 



5 

1 I I I I I 



10 

_|cm 



95 



Figure 27 — Catalogue 



Fig. No. Field No. Locus Present Location 

Discarded 

N.A. 

Discarded 

Tehran 

N.A. 

Discarded 



1 


Gd. 69-559 


B3, Lot 7, Area 4 


2 


Gd. 69-657 


AA2, st. 14, Area 22 


3 


Gd. 69-669 


R, Bur. 1 


4 


Gd. 69-548 


Al,Lot 80, Area 14 


5 


Gd. 69-658 


B2, st. 12, Area 6 


6 


Gd. 69-319 


AA2, st. 8C, Area 6 






96 






MM 



20 

Jem 



27 Godin, Period III pottery. 



97 



Figure 28 — Catalogue 



Fig. No. Locus Description 



1 DD3, Lot 8, ? 
Area 1 

2 BB1, st. 2-3 Coarse Reddish brown surface. Smoke-blackened. 

Smoothed. 

3 A2, st. 3, Reddish smoke-blackened coarse. 
Area 3 

4 AA3, Lot 10, Coarse-red-brown surface. Smoothed. Wheel made, 
st. 2-3, Area 4 

5 AA10, st. 2-3, Coarse-red-brown surface. Smoke-blackened. 
Area 4 

6 BB3, Lot 37, Smoke-blackened. Well fired. Buff slip, 
st. 3b, Area 1 

7 AA3, Lot 10, Buff Brown. Well fired. Wheel made, 
st. 2-3, Area 4 

8 BB1, Lot 37, Well fired. Light red. 
st. 3b 

9 EE1, Lot 2, Buff brown. Well finished. Wheel made, 
st. 2, Area 2 

10 AA3, Lot 8, Brown red. Smoke blackened, 
st. 2, Area 2 

11 BB2, st. 3b Common Buff-pink. Smoothed. Wheel made. 

12 AA3, Lot 10, ? 
st. 2-3, Area 4 

13 Number Common plain buff. Wheel made, 
missing 

14 Number Coarse grey. Smoke-blackened surface. Wheel made, 
missing 

15 AA3, Lot 10, Coarse Buff-reddish Brown surface. Smoke-blackened, 
st. 2-3, Area 4 Wheel made. 



98 




5 10 

I'lIM |cm 



28 Godin, Period III painted pottery. 



99 



Figure 29 - — Catalogue 



Fig. No. Field No. Locus Present Location 

Tehran 

Tehran 

Tehran 

Tehran 

Tehran 

Tehran 

N.A. 

Tehran 



1 


Gd. 71-274 


Al, Lot 248 


2 


Gd. 71-219 


AM, Lot 78 


3 


Gd. 71-92 


AA, Lot 244 


4 


Gd. 71-206 


Al, Lot 269 


5 


Gd. 71-30 


Bl.Lot 107 


6 


Gd. 71-348 


Al, 157 


7 


Gd. 71-51 


Bl, st. 15E, Area 15 


8 


Gd. 69-745 


CI, Lot 26 



00 



5~3 



mn 




29 Godin, Period III painted pottery. 



10 



Figure 30 — Catalogue 



Fig. No. Field No. Locus Present Location 

Tehran 

N.A. 

N.A. 

Tehran 

N.A. 

Tehran 

Tehran 

Tehran 

Tehran 

N.A. 

Tehran 

Tehran 

N.A. 

Tehran 



1 


Gd. 69-678 


R. Bur. 2 


2 


Gd. 69-679 


R. Bur. 2 


3 


Gd. 71-69 


Bl,Lot 159 


4 


Gd. 69-199 


AA1, III:2A fill 


5 


Gd. 69-464 


C3, Bur. 1 


6 


Gd. 69-762 


Al, 111:4 


7 


Gd. 71-199 


Al, Lot 192 


8 


Gd. 71-307 


AA, Lot 296 


9 


Gd. 71-57 


AA. Lot 244 


10 


Gd. 69-752 


C2, st. 3 


11 


Gd. 71-118 


Bl.Lot 182 


12 


Gd. 71-110 


AA, Lot 269 


13 


Gd. 71-352 


Al, Lot 236 


14 


Gd. 71-271 


A2, Lot 302 



102 




>0 Godin, Period III painted pottery. 



03 



Figure 31 — Catalogue 



Fig. No. Field No. Locus Present Location 

Tehran 
N.A. 

N.A. 

Tehran 

Tehran 

Tehran 

Discarded 

Tehran 

Tehran 

Tehran 



1 


Gd. 71-25 


Bl, st. 15D, Area 8 


2 


Gd. 71-349 


AA, Lot 282 


3 


Gd. 71-345 


AA, Lot 244 


4 


Gd. 71-298 


Bl, Lot 280 


5 


Gd. 69-707 


Bl, Lot 89 


6 


Gd. 71-337 


Al, Lot 400 


7 


Gd. 71-234 


Al, Lot 324 


8 


Gd. 69-253 


AA2, st. 11-12, Area 9 


9 


Gd. 71-108 


AA, Lot 244 


10 


Gd. 69-628 


C2, st. 7, Area 101 



04 







31 Godin, Period III painted pottery. 



05 



Figure 32 — Catalogue 



Fig. No. Field No. Locus Present Location 

Tehran 
Tehran ? 

N.A. ? 
Tehran 



1 


Gd. 


17-346 


AA, Lot 245 


2 


Gd. 


69-668 


R, Bur. 1 


3 


Gd. 


69-662 


R, Bur. 1 


4 


Gd. 


71-200 


Al, Lot 316 



106 





5 

1 I I I I I 



10 
_lcm 



32 Godin, Period III painted pottery. 



07 



Figure 33 — Catalogue 



Fig. No. Field No. Locus Present Location 



1 


Gd. 69-10 


C2, st. 3, Area 1A 


Tehran 


2 


Gd. 69-7 


C2, st. 5, Area 3 


Tehran 


3 


Gd. 69-702 


AA2/A2 balk, Lot 7, Area 21 


Tehran 


4 


Gd. 69-58 


C2, st. 5, Area 6 


Tehran 


5 


Gd. 69-261 


C2, st. 6, Area 2 


N.A. 


6 


Gd. 69-720 


Al,Lot 80 


N.A. 



108 







33 Godin, Period III pottery and small finds. 



1 09 



Figure 34 — Catalogue 



Fig. No. Field No. Locus Present Location 



1 


Gd. 69-331 


AA9, Bur. 1 


Tehran 


2 


Gd. 69-727 


Al/Bl balk, III: 2 A floor 


N.A. 


3 


Gd. 71-304 


AOl, Lot 19 


Tehran 


4 


Gd. 71-342 


Period II fill 


N.A. 


5 


Gd. 69-741 


Al, Lot 102 


Tehran 



110 










I 




section 




u 



5 





10 



Icm 



34 Godin. Period III small finds. 



I l 



Figure 35 — Catalogue 



Fig. No. Field No. Locus Present Location 

1 Gd. 69-310 C2, st. 6 N.A. 

2 Gd. 67-104 M, loose in fill N.A. 

3 Gd. 69-321 AM, st. 8C/D, Area 4 Tehran 

4 Gd. 69-59 B2, st. 9B N.A. 

5 Gd. 69-692 A2, st. 9A/B Tehran 

6 Gd. 69-48 AA1, III:2A fill Tehran 

7 Gd. 69-323 AA1, st. 8C/D, Area 4 N.A. 

8 Gd. 69-322 AA 1 , st. 8C/ D, Area 4 Tehran 

9 Gd. 69-603 A2, Lot 172 Tehran 
10 Gd. 69-2 C2, st. 3, Area 1 Tehran 



112 







9 





6 





10 







10 



cm 



35 Godin. Period III small find- 



Figure 36 — Catalogue 



Fig. No. Field No. Locus Present Location 

Tehran 

N.A. 

N.A. 

Tehran 

N.A. 

Tehran 



1 


Gd. 69-209 


B2, Lot 80 


2 


Gd. 69-51 


CCl,st. 2, Area 1 


3 


Gd. 69-218 


B2, st. 8D 


4 


Gd. 69-233 


AA1, st. 11, Area 4 


5 


Gd. 69-314 


B3, st. 3 


6 


Gd. 69-469 


Surface 



14 








6 



I I 



5 

I I I 



10 



cm 



36 Godin. Period III small finds. 



H5 




37 Godin, Period II structure: the fortified manor house. 



116 






GODIN TEPE 

PERIOD II 

E-W ARCHITECTURAL SECTION 





TfTaa 







l-^_ 








II 




i 






f 



w 



38 Godin. East-West Section across Period II structure. 
117 



GODIN TEPE 

PERIOD II 

N-S ARCHITECTURAL SECTION 



10 




39 Godin, North-South Section across Period II structure. 






I 19 






GODIN TEPE 

PERIOD II 



40 Godin, schematic plans of Stages 1, 2 and 3 in the history of the Period II 
structure. 



120 





GODIN TEPE 

PERIOD II 



41 Godin, schematic plans of Stages 4 and 5 in the history of the Period II 

structure. 



12 




GODIN TEPE 

PERIOD II 

ARCHITECTURAL DETAIL 



10 

am 



^^f||pl 




*it> 



.449 * /0 D 3 



g Blocked Passages. 



42 Godin, detail plan of stairway and ramp area, Period II structure. 



22 



GODIN TEPE 1969 



PERIOD n 
I 2 




43 Godin, Period II structures, Operation AA9. 



I 23 



Figure 44 — Catalogue 



Fig. No. Locus 



Description 



1 


AA3, st. 2-3 




Area 4 


2 


Al, st. 3, 




Area 1 


3 


AA1, st. 2 


4 


BB2, st. 2-3 


5 


AAl,st. 3 


6 


BB3, st. 3B, 




Area 1 


7 


BBl,st. 3C, 




Area 2 


8 


B2, st 2-4 


9 


DD3, Lot 6 


10 


BBl,st. 2-3 


11 


CC3, st. 3A, 




Area 5 


12 


DD2, st. 3, 




Area 1 


13 


AA9, st. 2 


14 


AAl,Pit 1 



Plain-buff common ware. Buff. Smoothed. 

Plain-buff common ware. Buff. Smoothed. 

Plain-buff common ware. Buff. Smoothed. 
Plain-buff common ware. Buff. Smoothed. 
Plain-buff common ware. Buff. Smoothed. 
Plain-buff common ware. Buff. Smoothed. 

Plain-buff common ware. Buff. Smoothed. 

Plain-buff common ware. Buff. Smoothed. 
Plain-buff common ware. Buff. Burnished. 
Plain-buff common ware. Buff. Smoothed. 
Red-slipped common ware. Red. Burnished. 

Plain-buff common ware. Buff. Smoothed. 

Plain-buff common ware. Buff. Smoothed. 
Plain-buff common ware. Buff. Smoothed. 



24 




44 Godin, Period II pottery. 



125 



Figure 45 — Catalogue 



Fig. No. Locus 



Description 



1 


AA3, st. 2-3, 




Area 9 


2 


CC2, st. 2 


3 


DD3, st. 2, 




Area 2 


4 


BB2, st. 3a 


5 


DD3, st. 2, 




Area 2 


6 


DD3, st. 2, 




Area 2 


7 


BBl,st. 3, 




Area 4 


8 


BB3, st. 3B, 




Area 4 


9 


DD3, st. 2, 




Area 1 


10 


AA3, st. 2-3, 




Area 4 


11 


AA3, st. 2-3, 




Area 4 


12 


BB2, st. 3A 


13 


CC2, st. 2-3 


14 


CC2, st. 2-3 


15 


CC2, st. 2 


16 


Al,st. 3, 




Area 21 


17 


DD3, Lot 6 


18 


DD3, st. 2, 




Area 2 


19 


AA3, st. 2, 




Area 4 


20 


DD3, st. 2, 




Area 2 


21 


BB2. st. 2-3 


22 


BB2, st. 3A 


23 


DD3, st. 2. 




Area 2 


24 


DD2, st. 3. 




Area 1 


25 


AA3, st. 2-3. 




Area 5 


26 


DD3, st. 2. 




Area 2 


27 


Surface 


28 


EEl.st. 3 


29 


BB2. st. 3A 


30 


Number 




missing 


31 


DD3. st. 2. 




Area 2 



Plain-buff fine ware. Dark buff. Burnished. 

Plain-buff fine ware. Dark buff. Burnished. 
Plain-buff fine ware. Buff. Burnished. 

Plain-buff fine ware. Buff. Burnished. 
Plain-buff fine ware. Buff. Polished. 

Plain-buff fine ware. Buff. Burnished. 

Plain-buff fine ware. Buff. Burnished. 

Plain-buff fine ware. Buff. Smoothed. 

Plain-buff fine ware. Buff. Smoothed. 

Red-slipped fine ware. Red. Burnished. 

Plain-buff fine ware. Buff. Polished. 

Grey fine ware. Black. Polished. 
Plain-buff fine ware. Pink-buff. Burnished. 
Plain-buff fine ware. Pink-buff. Burnished. 
Plain-buff fine ware. Buff. Burnished. 
Plain-buff fine ware. Buff. Polished. 

Plain-buff fine ware. Buff. Burnished. 
Plain-buff fine ware. Buff. Polished. 

Plain-buff fine ware. Buff. Burnished. 

Gd. 69-334. N.A. 

Plain-buff fine ware. Buff. Burnished. 
Plain-buff fine ware. Buff. Burnished. 
Plain-buff fine ware. Buff. Burnished. 

Plain-buff fine ware. Buff. Burnished. 

Plain-buff fine ware. Buff. Smoothed. 

Plain-buff fine ware. Buff. Burnished. 

Plain-buff fine ware. Buff. Polished. 
Plain-buff fine ware. Buff. Smoothed. 
Plain-buff fine ware. Buff. Burnished. 
Red-slipped fine ware. Red. Smoothed. 

Plain-buff fine ware. Buff. Burnished. 



126 










> 


19 




I I I 


5 

I I I 


10 
Jrm 



w 


I 

27 


V 


28 


I 


i ; 

29 


\. 


L J 



31 



45 Godin, Period IT pottery. 



127 



Figure 46 — Catalogue 



Fig. No. Locus 



Description 



1 

2 
3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 

13 

14 

15 

16 

17 
18 

19 

20 

21 

22 

23 

24 

25 
26 

27 
28 
29 

30 



128 



BB3, st. 3, 
Area 3 
BB2, st. 3B 
BB3, st. 2-3A, 
Area 1A 
DD3, Lot 8, 
Area 1 
A2, st. 4, 
Area 1 
DD3, Lot 8, 
Area 1 
CC2, st. 2-3, 
Area 1 
A, st. 1 
CC2, st. 2 
A A3, Lot 15 
EE1, st. 3, 
Area 2 
Number 
missing 
BB3, st. 3B, 
Area 4 
CC2, st. 3, 
Area 2 
Al,st. 6, 
Area 1 
AA3, st. 2-3, 
Area 4 
CC1, st. 2 
Number 
missing 
AA3, st. 2-3. 
Area 5 
DD3, st. 2, 
Area 1 
BB2, st. 2 
AA3, st. 2-3, 
Area 4 
DD3, st. 2, 
Area 2 
Number 
missing 
BB2, st. 2-3 
AA3, st. 3B, 
Area 4 
BB2, st. 2-3 
BB2, st. 3B 
AA2, st. 3, 
Area 1 
A2. st. 3, 
Area 2 



Plain-buff fine ware. Buff. Burnished. 

Plain-buff common ware. Pink-buff. Smoothed. 
Plain-buff common ware. Buff. Smoothed. 

Plain-buff fine ware. Pink-buff. Burnished. 

Brown fine ware. Light brown. Polished. 

Plain-buff common ware. Buff. Horizontal burnish marks. 

Brown fine ware. Light brown. Horizontal burnished marks. 



Pla 
Pla 
Pla 
Pla 

Pla 

Pla 

Pla 

Pla 

Pla 

Pia 
Pla 

Pla 

Pla 

Pla 

Pla 

Pla 
Pla 



n-buff common ware. Buff. Burnished. 

n-buff fine ware. Orange-buff. Polished. 

n-buff common ware. Buff. Horizontal burnish marks. 

n-buff common ware. Cream-buff. Matte. 

n-buff common ware. Brown. Horizontal burnish marks. 

n-buff common ware. Buff. Smoothed. 

n-buff common ware. Brown-buff. Burnished. 

n-buff common ware. Buff. Horizontal burnish marks. 

n-buff common ware. Smoke blackened. Matte. 

n-buff common ware. Cream-buff. Matte, 
n-buff common ware. Buff. Smoothed. 

n-buff common ware. Buff. Smoothed. 

n-buff common ware. Buff. Smoothed. 

n-buff common ware. Buff. Smoothed, 
n-buff common ware. Brown-grey. Smoothed. 

n-buff common ware. Buff. Horizontal burnish marks. 

n-buff fine ware. Orange-buff. Burnished. 



Red-slipped common ware. Light red. Smoothed. 
Red-slipped common ware. Red. Burnished. 

Plain-buff common ware. Buff. Burnished. 

Plain-buff common ware. Brown. Horizontal burnish marks. 

Plain-buff common ware. Buff. Smoothed. 

Plain-buff common ware. Buff. Smoothed. 



\" 



16 



\ 



% 



I 



8 



9 



10 



11 



12 



13 



14 



15 



T 



X 



\ 





\ 



5 

1 I II I I 



10 
_lcm 



17 



18 



19 



20 



21 



22 



23 



24 



25 



26 



27 



28 



29 



30 



7 



7 



46 Godin, Period II pottery. 



129 



Figure 47 — Catalogue 



Fig. No. Locus 



Description 



1 


B3, st. 3 


2 


BBl,st. 2-3 


3 


BB2, st. 2A 


4 


CC2, st. 3, 




Area 2 


5 


CC2, st. 3, 




Area 2 


6 


BB3, st. 3, 




Area 3 


7 


BB2, st. 3A 


8 


A A3, st. 3 


9 


Number 




missing 


10 


DD2. Lot 4, 




Area 1 


11 


CC2, st. 2 


12 


CO, st. 2 


13 


DD, Lot 36 


14 


DD, Lot 36 


15 


Number 




missing 


16 


BB2, st. 2-3 


17 


BB2, st. 3B 


18 


BB2, st. 3A 



Plain-buff common ware. Buff. Burnished. 
Plain-buff common ware. Buff. Burnished. 
Red-slipped common ware. Light red. Burnished. 
Plain-buff fine ware. Buff. Burnished. 

Plain-buff common ware. Buff Smoothed. 

Plain-buff common ware. Greenish-buff. Over fired and 

badly blistered. 

Plain-buff common ware. Buff. Matte. 

Plain-buff fine ware. Reddish-buff. Polished. 

Plain-buff common ware. Buff with smoke-blackening. 

Matte. 

Red-slipped fine ware. Red. Burnished. 

Plain-buff common ware. Buff. Smoothed. 
Plain-buff common ware. Buff. Smoothed. 
Plain-buff common fine ware. Reddish-buff. Burnished. 
Plain-buff common ware. Buff. Smoothed. 
Plain-buff common ware. Buff. Smoothed. 

Plain-buff common ware. Buff. Matte. 
Plain-buff fine ware. Reddish-buff. Burnished. 
Plain-buff common ware. Cream-buff. Matte. 



130 




5 

I I I I I I 



10 
Jcr 



47 Godin. Period II pottery. 



131 



Figure 48 — Catalogue 



Fig. No. Locus 



Description 



1 


AA3, st. 3, 




Area 4 


2 


CC2, st. 2-3, 




Area 1 


3 


CC2, st. 3, 




Area 2 


4 


AA2, st. 3 


5 


AA3, st. 2-3, 




Area 4 


6 


AA3, st. 2-3, 




Area 4 


7 


CC2, st. 3, 




Area 2 


8 


BB1, st. 3 


9 


AA3, st. 2-3, 




Area 4 


10 


BB2, st. 3B 


11 


BB2, st. 3B 


12 


CC2, st. 2 


13 


BB3, st. 3B, 




Area 1 


14 


Al, st. 3, 




Area 1 


15 


AAl,st. 2 


16 


BB2, st. 3A 


17 


Number 




missing 


18 


DD2, st. 2 


19 


AA3, st. 2, 




Area 2 


20 


DD3, Lot 36 


21 


Number 




missing 


22 


BB2, st. 2-3 


23 


Number 




missing 


24 


Number 




missing 


25 


Number 



Plain-buff common ware. Buff. Burnished. 

Plain-buff common ware. Tan. Smoke blackened. 

Burnished. 

Plain-buff common ware. Cream-buff. Burnished. 

Plain-buff common ware. Greenish-cream. Over-fired. 

Smoothed. 

Plain-buff common ware. Tan. Brown-black. Smoothed. 

Plain-buff common ware. Tan-buff. Brown-black. 

Smoothed. 

Plain-buff common. Reddish-buff. Burnished. 

Plain-buff common ware. Tan-buff. Smoothed. 
Plain-buff common ware. Cream-buff. Smoothed. 

Plain-buff common ware. Buff. Smoothed. 
Plain-buff common ware. Buff. Smoothed. 
Plain-buff common ware. Buff. Smoothed. 
Plain-buff common ware. Reddish-buff. Smoothed. 

Plain-buff common ware. Pink-buff. Smoothed. 

Plain-buff common ware. Cream buff. Smoothed. 
Plain-buff common ware. Cream buff. Smoothed. 
Grey fine ware. Grey-black. Burnished. 

Plain-buff common ware. Buff. Matte. 
Plain-buff common ware. Buff. Smoothed. 

Plain-buff common ware. Buff. Smoothed. 
Plain-buff fine ware. Buff. Horizontal burnish marks. 

Plain-buff common ware. Buff. Smoothed. 
Plain-buff common ware. Buff. Smoothed. 

Red-slipped common ware. Light red. Burnished. 

Plain-buff common ware. Tan-buff. Smoothed. 



missing 



132 




5 



10 
Jem 



48 Godin, Period II pottery. 



133 



Figure 49 — Catalogue 



Fig. No. Locus Description 



1 BB2, st. 2-3 Plain-buff common ware. Buff. Smoothed. Hole in lip. 

2 Al, st. 3, Plain-buff common ware. Buff. Burnished. 
Area 1 

3 Al, st. 3, Plain-buff common ware. Buff. Smoothed. 
Area 1 

4 AA1, st. 1 Plain-buff common ware. Tan-buff. Smoothed. 

5 AA3, st. 2-3, Plain-buff common ware. Buff. Smoothed. 
Area 4 

6 AA3, st. 2, Plain-buff common ware. Orange-buff. Burnished. 
Area 2 

7 BB1, st. 3B, Outside plain-buff common ware. Buff. Smoothed. 
Area 2 Inside red-slipped. Reddish-buff. Smoothed. 

8 AA3, st. 2-3, Plain-buff common ware. Pink-buff. Horizontal burnish 
Area 4 marks. 

9 B2, st. 3A Plain-buff common ware. Buff. Burnished. 

10 Al, st. 3, Plain-buff common ware. Buff. Burnished. 
Area 1 

11 EE1, st. 3, Red-slipped common ware. Red. Smoothed. 
Area 2 

12 O, Lot 1 Plain-buff fine ware. Buff. Smoothed. 



134 



^0< 




X 







? 



^ 




8 




iS\ 



9 





6 





\ 



10 



11 



12 



49 Godin. Period II pottery. 



5 

1 I I I I I 



10 



35 



Figure 50 — Catalogue 



Fig. No. Field No. Locus Present Location 

Tehran 
Tehran 

N.A. 

N.A. 

N.A. 

N.A. 

Tehran 

N.A. 

Tehran 

Tehran 



1 


Gd. 


69-196 


BB2, st. 2, Area 4 


2 


Gd. 


69-224 


DD3, st. 2, Area 2 


3 


Gd. 


69-462 


CCl,st. 4, Area 3 


4 


Gd. 


69-258 


BB1/2 balk, Lot 1 


5 


Gd. 


69-729 


BB3, st. 3B, Area 4 


6 


Gd. 


69-211 


AA9/10, Lot 1 


7 


Gd. 


69-217 


BB2, st. 2, Area 3 


8 


Gd. 


71-285 


SE corner, Lot 2 


9 


Gd. 


69-634 


CC2, Area 3 floor 


10 


Gd. 


69-264 


BB2, st. 3B 



136 





1/ 

l\ 

l\ 
1 


J-l 

3t 

| 4 


• 
7 





I — I 










5 

I I I I I I 




10 
Jem 



50 Godin. Period II small find! 



137 



KEY TO ARCHITECTURAL PLANS 



I9KZ Threshold Stones 
Blocked Door 
Window 



T 



I25E Wa " Foundation Stones 
Mud/Mud Brick Wall 
Paving Stones 

Other Stones 

Bench 

Hearth 



I 



o * 

9 Pot 

O Hole 

£\*^ Later Pit 

• Post Hole 




_ Stone Steps 
14 Room No. 



CgMX Drain 
— 480 Elevation (cm) Below Datum 

51 Godin, Key to symbols, architectural plans. 



Down 
Grid Lines 



KEY TO ARCHAEOLOGICAL SECTIONS 



IflTOfll Turf 

\'" \\ x | Very loose wash 
Fju^FJ Loose wash 
^=m^ Compact wash 

Gravel 

Loose wash & gravel 



t^&vl Striated occupational trash 
Bricky collapse 






] Bricky collapse & brick bats 



' .; ' , m 






■fiM Sand 



| Layered wash-mud, clay, etc. 
Artificial pack 
Hearth 
Heavy burn 



ffijffij Compact ash 



t jV^Vl Loose ash 



SjSj Striated ash 



E3IZ3JJ Brick wall 
Tauf wall 
Stone 



52 Godin, Key to symbols, archaeological sections. 

138 






Plates 




Plate I: Seh Gabi, Mound B, about one month after the start of excavations. Look- 
ing west. 



41 




Plate IT: Seh Gabi, Mounds A and E as viewed from Mound B at the start of 
excavations. 



142 








3G£ 







v= *P* - 




Plate III: Niche and quern in the main room, Level A, Mound B. Looking north. 



PkJp* 




Plate IV: Plastered feature west of wall D in H 19, Level A, Mound H. 



43 




Plate V: Eastern end of the main room, Level A, Mound B, showing the plastered 
walls and the sling pellets on the floor. 






■ 




\ 




Plate VT: Sling pellets and red deer antlers in the open area to the east of the 
building, Level A, Mound B. 



144 




Plate VII: Level C, Mound B, general view. The curtain wall in the upper right 
is wall N. 





t 




t' J ]£ 






- ' ' 




JjQJfrjjII 











Plate VIII: Close up of the corrugated surface of wall N, mound B, Level C. 



45 




Plate IX: Mound B, G 20, Burial 5, covered. 






^^m0 



Plate X: Mound B, G 20, Burial 5, uncovered. 
146 






fcW ; ' i 


'.;.. 


■ 




;• 


: 





















Plate XI: The Godin Citadel mound viewed from the north at the close of 1971 field 
season. 



147 




Plate XII: Close-up of the torso of Burial 1, Operation AA9 with arrow head im- 
bedded in the spine. 



148 







Plate XIII: Level III:2C, entrance corridor, room 1, with stone threshold and mud 
brick benches. 



49 




Plate XIV: Level IIT:2C, the hearth and bench structure in room 2 viewed from above. 



150 




Plate XV: Level III: 2 A, clay grain storage bins in room 24. 



15 




Plate XVI: Level III:4A, view southeast down "Avenue Road' 



152 




Plate XVII: Level III:4A; view north up the alleyway leading to room 5 and 
courtyard 10. 




Plate XVIII: Level IIL4A, view north across area 7. rooms H and 9, alleyway 15, 
courtyard 10 and the alleyway cast of room X. 



53 




yL %s%t * 



,J ***i 







tf* '-■ 



GODIN 69 

B2 ST13 

AREA 6 Bl 




Plate XIX: Level III:4A, skeleton of the body crushed on the stone pavement in 
room 23. 



54 





Plate XX: Level III:4A. rectangular bin on the mud brick counter in room 29. 



155 



::$»**.■■:*•• 




*~ * -*, •»."* :. 






Plate XXI: Level III:4A, general view of room 32 showing the elaborate hearth 
against the north wall. 



156 




Plate XXII: Level III:5D, view from the northeast toward the doorwav of room 




Plate XXIII: Period II. east face of tower 13 cleared hack to the remaining fragment 
of the original fortification wall running between towers 13 and 5. 



57 





V / 








4 * 



Plate XXIV: Period II, view of the fortification wa 
river bed. 



ind towers 4 and 17 from the 



158 




Plate XXV: Period II, west face of tower 17 showing curving socle. 



159 




r*. - 





*I \ 



GODIN 69 
DD 01 

TOWER 



■ W M " 




Plate XXVI: Period II, buttress of west side of tower 17 showing reconstruction at 
a slightly different alignment from the original structure. 



60 



; 



- u • ■ 



. 



.. . ' • 







V 






W: 



* 



*$ 



*>> ♦ - - . 



'i^NBi 







«^ 



->, 




Plate XXVII: Period II, arrow slot in the north fortification wall. NB: two lines of 
replastering indicating the depth to which debris had been allowed to accumulate 
against the wall face. 



161 




Plate XXVIII: Period II, doorway into room 21 with lintel intact. 



62 




Plate XXIX: Period II, view of the south bank of magazines (Stage 3) from the 
Citadel mound to the south. 



163 




Plate XXX: Period II, view looking northwest across the massive southeastern 
watch tower, rooms 36 and 37. 



64 



a 




Plate XXXI: Period II, stairway in area 43. All but a fragment of the stairway 
(upper left) has been cleaned down to the original first plaster surface. 



65 




Plate XXXII: Period II, "squatter occupation," flimsy stone foundation of wall in 
area 45. 



66 




Plate XXXIII: Period II. "squatter occupation," hearth in area 44. 



167 



7124 



Iffc 



mm 



war 



*, ' ■< 



ISBN 0-88854-019- 



library 

rovau i ! MUSEUM